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An Elementary Paa.li Course
In Paa.li there are six kinds of
Participles - viz.:
1. These have been already dealt with in Lesson VIII-B. See Table in Lesson VI-B.
(i) The Present Active Participles are formed by adding anta and maana to the root; e.g.,
paca + anta = pacanta;
(i^i) The Present Passive Participles are formed by adding the Passive suffix ya between the root and the suffix maana. If the ending of the root is a or aa, it is changed into i, e.g.,
paca + ya + maana =
paciiyamaana, being cooked;
Generally these suffixes are added to the forms the roots assume before the third person plural terminations of the present tense.
These participles are inflectional and agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify, in gender, number and case. They are also used when contemporaneity of action is to be indicated. The sense of the English words 'as, since, while, whilst' may be expressed by them.
Declension of pacanta in the feminine
The feminine is formed by adding the suffix ii, as pacanta + ii = pacantii, and is declined like feminine nouns ending in ii (See lesson X).
The Present Participles ending in maana are declined like nara, ka~n~naa and phala; as pacamaano (m.) pacamaanaa (f.) and pacamaana.m (n.).
(iv), (v) The Past Active and Passive participles are formed by adding the suffix ta, or na after d etc. to the root or stem. If the ending of the root is a, it is often changed into i.
These are also inflectional and agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify in gender, number and case. They are frequently used to supply the place of verbs, sometimes in conjunction with the auxiliaries asa and hu to be.
(vi) The Potential Participles are formed by adding the suffix tabba to the root or stem with or without. If the ending of the root is a, it is often changed into i.
These participles too agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify in gender, number and case. The agent is put in the Instrumental.
2. disa, (i) to preach; (i^i) to see. Desenta, preaching; Passanta, seeing.
Translate into English.1. "Eva.m me suta.m."
2. Mayi gate* so aagato.
3. Ki.m tena kata.m?
4. So tassa va.n.na.m bha.namaano ma.m upasa.mkami.
5. Aha.m magge gacchanto tasmi.m rukkhe nisinna.m saku.na.m passi.m.
6. Bhikkhuuhi lokassa dhammo desetabbo.
7. Pu~n~na.m kattabba.m, paapa.m na kaatabba.m.
8. Ajja etena maggena mayaa gantabba.m.
9. Sabbaa itthiyo dhamma.m sunantiyo etaaya saalaaya nisiidi.msu.
10. Pa.n.ditaa ya.m ya.m desa.m bhajanti tattha tatth'eva puujitaa honti.
11. Buddhena bujjhitaani saccaani mayaa'pi bujjhitabbaani.
12. Para.m loka.m gacchante tayaa kata.m pu~n~na.m vaa paapa.m vaa tayaa saddhi.m gacchati.
13. .Thito vaa nisinno vaa gacchanto vaa sayanto (or sayaano) vaa aha.m sabbesu sattesu metta.m karomi.
14. Vejjasaalaaya vasantaana.m gilaanaana.m pure osadha.m daatabba.m, pacchaa aparesa.m daatabba.m.
15. Ki.m nu kattabban'ti ajaanantaa te mama purato a.t.tha.msu.
16. "Pemato** jaayati soko - pemato jaayati bhaya.m;
Pemato vippamuttassa - n'atthi soko kuto bhaya.m."
17. "Ta.nhaaya jaayati soko - ta.nhaaya jaayati bhaya.m;
Ta.nhaaya vippamuttassa - n'atthi soko kuto bhaya.m."
18. Ekasmi.m samaye a~n~nataro devo rattiya.m Buddha.m upasa`nkamitvaa saddhaaya vanditvaa bhuumiya.m a.t.thaasi. .Thito so devo Buddha.m eka.m pa~nha.m pucchi. Pucchantassa devassa Buddho eva.m dhamma.m desesi.
19. Te ga`ngaaya.m nahaayante maya.m passimhaa.
20. "Sabbesu bhuutesu nidhaaya da.n.da.m
Avihe.thaya.m a~n~nataram'pi tesa.m
Na puttam'iccheyya kuto sahaaya.m
Eko care Khaggavisaa.nakappo."
* This is the Locative absolute.
** 'To' is another suffix for forming the Ablative.
Translate into Paa.li.1. This was done by you.
2. The branch was cut by him.
3. I saw a man going in the street.
4. She stood saluting the sage.
5. I came home when he had gone to school.
6. The monkeys ate the fallen fruits.
7. They saw her sitting in the hall.
8. You should not bathe in the river.
9. Let him do what should be done.
10. Thus should it be understood by you.
11. The books written by me should not be given to them.
12. My friends saw the jewel that was thrown into the fire.
13. I sat on the ground listening to the doctrine preached by the monks.
14. The virtuous should do much merit.
15. The people saw the sick persons drinking medicine given by the physician.
* Suggested Solutions
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa.
Buddha sāsana.m cira.m ti.t.thatu.