|Tipitaka Network: An Elementary Pali Course||Velthuis|
An Elementary Paa.li Course
A. Declension of satthu and pitu
B. Causal Forms (Kaarita)
Causals are formed by adding e, aya to roots ending in u and uu, aape, aapaya to roots ending in aa and all the four or two to the other roots. The terminations are added afterwards. All tenses, moods and participles have their own causal forms. The initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, often undergoes vuddhi substitute. Sometimes the vuddhi substitutes e and o are changed into aya and ava respectively.
daa + aape + ti
= daapeti - causes to give
Intransitive verbs become transitive, and ordinary transitive verbs take two objects when they assume causal forms.
Sometimes the agent of the causal verb
or, in other words the indirect object is put in the Instrumental
In some cases the causal forms modify
the original meaning of the verb; e.g.,
Translate into English.1. "Nam'atthu* satthuno."
2. "Tayaa suta.m dhamma.m amhe'pi saavehi."
3. Satthaa saavake dhamma.m desaapeti (or saavakehi).
4. Pitaa putta.m gaama.m gameti.
5. Maataa attano dhiitara.m nahaapetvaa paa.thasaala.m pesesi.
6. Bhattaa attano bhariyaaya atithayo sa`nga.nhaapesi.
7. Dhiitaro, daasehi daaruuni aaharaapetvaa aggi.m daapetha.
8. Dhiituuhi maataro ca pitaro ca rakkhitabbaa, maatuuhi ca pituuhi ca dhiitaro rakkhitabbaa.
9. Maataa dhiitare satthaara.m vandaapeti.
10. Aha.m maatuyaa ca pitaraa ca saddhi.m aaraama.m gantvaa te dhamma.m saavessaami.
11. Maatula, maya.m pana tava nattaaro homa. Tasmaa no saadhuka.m ugga.nhaapehi.
12. Satthaa sotaare saccaani bodhento gaamaa gaama.m nagaraa nagara.m vicarati.
13. Tesa.m ra.t.the dhitimante netaare na passaama.
14. Maatari ca pitari ca aadarena mayha.m bhattaa attano dhanena mahanta.m ghara.m kaaraapetvaa te tattha vasaapesi.
*namo + atthu = nam'atthu
Translate into Paa.li.1. Talkers are not always doers.
2. The leaders are not always conquerors.
3. My father taught my brother well and made him a leader of the country.
4. I made my mother give alms to the disciples of the Teacher.
5. My nephew is reading the letter sent by his father.
6. Virtuous daughters cause their husbands to treat their mothers and fathers well.
7. Daily my father and mother cultivate good-will towards all beings and advise us also to do likewise.
8. Of my two brothers one is a talker and the other is a doer.
9. I do not cause my servants to give food to my husband.
10. Let the Teacher cause the monks to preach the Doctrine. There will be knowers. They will understand the Truth and make others realise their Deliverance.
11. Our father made our brothers cut the trees in the garden.
12. The conquerors caused the people to erect a large hall in the kingdom.
13. Daughters, you should not do evil, nor cause others to do evil.
14. The monks should neither dig the ground nor cause others to dig the ground.
* Suggested Solutions
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa.
Buddha sāsana.m cira.m ti.t.thatu.