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An Elementary Paa.li Course
Rules of Sandhi (Combinations)
By Sandhi1 is meant the combination of two letters that come in immediate contact with each other.
This combination may take place by elision, substitution, augment, etc.
1 Formed of sa.m, together, with dhaa, to join.
In Paa.li there are three classes of Sandhi, viz.:
1. Sara Sandhi - Vowel Combinations
1. When two vowels come together, the preceding vowel is often dropped.
2. Sometimes the following vowel is dropped, if it is preceded by a dissimilar vowel.
3. When the preceding dissimilar vowel is dropped, the following i and u short or long, are substituted by e and o respectively.
4. When the preceding vowel is dropped, the following vowel is sometimes lengthened.
5. Sometimes the preceding vowel is lengthened when the following vowel is dropped.
6. When te, me, ye are followed by a vowel, y is sometimes substituted for their final e.
7. When i, ii and u, o are followed by a dissimilar vowel2, y and v are sometimes substituted for them respectively.
2 For instance a and aa are similar vowels, a and i are dissimilar vowels.
8. "Ti" of ati, iti, and pati, when followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into "cc".
9. Abhi, followed by a vowel is sometimes changed into abbha.
10. Adhi, followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into ajjha.
11. Sometimes t, d, n, m, y, r, .l, v are inserted before a vowel.
2. Vya~njana Sandhi - Consonant Combinations
1. The vowel preceding a consonant is sometimes lengthened.
2. Sometimes the vowel preceding a consonant is shortened.
3. Before a consonant the final o of the pronominal stems eta and ta is changed into a.
4. The consonant following a vowel is sometimes duplicated.
5. When an aspirated consonant is duplicated, the preceding one is changed into the unaspirated form of the same consonant.
3. Niggahita (.m) Sandhi - Niggahita Combinations
1. The Niggahita preceding a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group.
2. The Niggahita preceding e and h is changed into ~n. Before e the substituted ~n is duplicated.
3. The Niggahita preceding y is sometimes changed into ~n, y is afterwards dropped, and the substituted ~n is duplicated.
4. The Niggahita, followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into m, and into d if it is affixed to ta and eta.
5. Sometimes the Niggahita preceding a vowel is dropped. The initial vowel of the following word not followed by a double consonant, is lengthened, and the final vowel of the preceding word is dropped.
6. Sometimes the Niggahita preceding a consonant is also dropped.
7. Sometimes a Niggahita is inserted before a vowel or a consonant.
8. Sometimes the vowel following a Niggahita is dropped, and the Niggahita is afterwards nasalised.
* Suggested Solutions
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa.
Buddha sāsana.m cira.m ti.t.thatu.