Practical Grammar of the Pli Language
(a) Strengthening Process
103. Strengthening is the process of changing a vowel sound into another vowel sound.
104. The vowels which undergo strengthening are: a, i, ┤, u and Ŕ.
105. Thus: a
being strengthened, becomes .
i being strengthened, becomes e.
┤ being strengthened, becomes e.
u being strengthened, becomes o.
Ŕ being strengthened, becomes o.
106. The result thus obtained is also called gu÷a (quality).
107. Therefore, the gu÷a of a is , that of i and ┤ is e, that of u and Ŕ is o.
108. Further, as we already know (by rules 27(i)a, 27(ii)b), final e and o when followed by a vowel may be changed into their semi-vowel + that vowel.
109. The following table of these very useful changes should be borne in mind.
|Simple vowel||Strengthening or gu║a||Vowel and semi-vowel|
110. Strengthening occurs frequently in the formation of verbal bases, of Verbals (See chapter on Verbs) and in the derivation of words under the influence of certain suffixes.
Remarks. In the derivation of
Primary and Secondary Nouns (see Derivation), it will simplify
matters to assume at once that:
i or ┤ + a = aya.
u or Ŕ + a = ava.
e + a = aya.
o + a = ava.
111. Examples of metathesis have already (78) been given.
Metathesis is the transposition of letters or of syllables in a
word; the following are further instances of this transposition:
(i) pariyudhsi becomes payirudhsi.
(ii) ariya becomes ayira.
(iii) kariy becomes kayir.
(iv) masaka becomes makasa.
(v) rasmi becomes raÁsi.
(vi) na abhineyya becomes anabhineyya.
(vii) cilimik becomes cimilik.
113. Epenthesis is the insertion of a letter in the middle of a word.
114. Epenthesis is resorted to mostly to avoid a hiatus of the collocation of consonants of different organs:
(i) klesa becomes kilesa.
(ii) crya becomes criya.
(iii) tia║gula becomes tiva║gula.
(iv) hyo becomes h┤yo or hiyyo.
(v) barhisa becomes barihisa.
(vi) hrada becomes harada.
(vii) arhati becomes arahati.
(viii) sr┤ becomes Sir┤.
(ix) hr┤ becomes hir┤.
(x) plavati becomes pilavati.
(d) Dropping of Syllables
Sometimes, for the sake of the metre, or to facilitate
pronunciation, whole syllables are dropped:
(i) abhiya sacchikatv, becomes, abhi sacchikatv.
(ii) jambud┤paÁ avekkhanto addasa, becomes, jambud┤paÁ avekkhanto adda.
(iii) dasasahass┤, becomes, dasahassi.
(iv) chada║gula, becomes, cha║gula.