A Practical Grammar of the PŒli Language
Chapter 7

Adjectives

Declension

196. Adjectives, like nouns, may be divided into those whose stem ends in a vowel and those the stem of which ends in a consonant.

To the student who has mastered the declension of nouns, that of Adjectives will present no difficulties.

Declension of adjectives in a

197. Adjectives in a form their Feminine by means of Œ mostly; some by means of ´.

198. The Neuter is obtained by adding µ to the stem.

199. The Masculine is declined like deva (122); the Feminine like ka––Œ (127), and the Neuter like rčpaµ (124).

Feminines in i are declined like nad´ (139).

200. Declension of BŒla (stem), foolish

Singular
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. bŒlo. bŒlŒ. bŒlaµ.
Gen. bŒlassa. bŒlŒya. bŒlassa.
Dat. bŒlassa, bŒlŒya. bŒlŒya. bŒlassa, bŒlŒya.
Acc. bŒlaµ. bŒlaµ. bŒlaµ.
Ins. bŒlena. bŒlŒya. bŒlena.
Abl. bŒlŒ, bŒlasmŒ, bŒlamhŒ, bŒlato. bŒlŒya. bŒlŒ, bŒlasmŒ, bŒlamhŒ, bŒlato.
Loc. bŒle, bŒlasmiµ, bŒlamhi. bŒlŒya, bŒlŒyaµ. bŒle, bŒlasmiµ, bŒlamhi.
Voc. bŒla, bŒlŒ. bŒlŒ, bŒle. bŒla.
       
Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. bŒlŒ. bŒlŒ, bŒlŒyo. bŒlŒni, bŒlŒ.
Gen. bŒlŒnaµ. bŒlŒnaµ. bŒlŒnaµ.
Dat. bŒlŒnaµ. bŒlŒnaµ. bŒlŒnaµ.
Acc. bŒle. bŒlŒ, bŒlŒyo. bŒlŒni, bŒle.
Ins. bŒlehi, bŒlebhi. bŒlŒhi, bŒlŒbhi. bŒlehi, bŒlebhi.
Abl. bŒlehi, bŒlebhi. bŒlŒhi, bŒlŒbhi. bŒlehi, bŒlebhi.
Loc. bŒlesu. bŒlŒsu. bŒlesu.
Voc. bŒlŒ. bŒlŒ, bŒlŒyo. bŒlŒni, bŒlŒ.
       
Exercise
Adjectives declined like deva, ka––Œ and rčpaµ.
Stem Masc. Fem. Neut.
dčra, far. dčro dč dčraµ
taruöa, young. taruöo taruöŒ taruöaµ
d´gha, long. d´gho d´ghŒ d´ghaµ
rassa, short. rasso rassŒ rassaµ
gambh´ra, deep. gambh´ro gambh´rŒ gambh´raµ
pharusa, harsh. pharuso pharusŒ pharusaµ
sukkha, dry. sukkho sukkhŒ sukkhaµ
Œmaka, raw. Œmako ŒmakŒ Œmakaµ
pŒpa, evil. pŒpo pŒpŒ pŒpaµ
khema, calm. khemo khemŒ khemaµ

201. We give here only a few examples of Feminine adjectives formed by means of ´ from stems in a.

pŒpa, evil. pŒpo, pŒp´.
taruöa, young. taruöo, taruö´.
d´pana, illuminating. d´pano, d´pan´.

Remarks. As said above these adjectives are declined like nad´ and therefore present no difficulty.

202. Adjectives in ´ (short)

203. Adjectives ending in i are declined like kapi, in the Masculine, and like vŒri, in the Neuter. The Feminine formed by means of ni is declined like nad´.

204. Declension of Bhčri (stem), abundant

Singular
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. bhčri. bhčrin´. bhčri.
Gen. bhčrissa, bhčrino. bhčriniyŒ. bhčrissa, bhčrino.
Dat. bhčrissa, bhčrino. bhčriniyŒ. bhčrissa, bhčrino.
Acc. bhčriµ. bhčriniµ. bhčriµ.
Ins. bhčrinŒ. bhčriniyŒ. bhčrinŒ.
Abl. bhčrinŒ, bhčrismŒ, bhčrimhŒ. bhčriniyŒ. bhčrinŒ, bhčrismŒ, bhčrimhŒ.
Loc. bhčrismiµ, bhčrimhi. bhčriniyŒ, bhčriniyaµ. bhčrismiµ, bhčrimhi.
Voc. bhčri. bhčrini. bhčri.
       
Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. bhčr´, bhčrŒyo. bhčrin´, bhčriniyo. bhčrin´, bhčr´.
Gen. bhčr´naµ. bhčrin´naµ. bhčrinaµ.
Dat. bhčr´naµ. bhčrin´naµ. bhčrinaµ.
Acc. bhčr´, bhčrŒyo. bhčrin´, bhčriniyo. bhčrin´, bhčr´.
Ins. bhčr´hi, bhčr´bhi. bhčrin´hi, bhčrin´bhi. bhčr´hi, bhčr´bhi.
Abl. bhčr´hi, bhčr´bhi. bhčrin´hi, bhčrin´bhi. bhčr´hi, bhčr´bhi.
Loc. bhčr´su. bhčrin´su. bhčr´su.
Voc. bhčr´, bhčrayo. bhčrini, bhčrin´yo. bhčrini, bhčr´.

205. Adjectives in ´ (long)

206. A numerous class of Masculine adjectives are derived from nouns by means of suffix i (an adjectival suffix not to be confounded with the Feminine suffix ´) (181, 2; 185).

Examples
Substantives Adjectives
pŒpa, sin. pŒp´, sinful.
dhamma, religion. dhamm´, religious, pious.
mŒna, pride. mŒn´, proud.
soka, sorrow. sok´, sorrowful.
roga, sickness. rog´, sick.
makkha, hypocrisy. makkh´, hypocritical.

207. The Masculine is declined like daö¶i.

208. The Feminine is formed by adding ni, before which final ´ is shortened; it is declined like nad´.

209. In the Neuter final ´ is shortened to i and is declined like vŒri.

210. Declension of Es´, wishing

Singular
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. es´. esin´. esi.
Gen. esissa, esino. esiniyŒ. esissa, esino.
Dat. esissa, esino. esiniyŒ. esissa, esino.
Acc. esiµ. esiniµ. esiµ.
Ins. esinŒ. esiniyŒ. esinŒ.
Abl. esinŒ, esismŒ, esimhŒ. esiniyŒ. esinŒ, esismŒ, esimhŒ.
Loc. esismiµ, esimhi. esiniyŒ, esiniyaµ. esismiµ, esimhi.
Voc. esi. esin´. esi.
       
Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. es´, esino. esin´, esiniyo. es´ni, es´.
Gen. es´naµ. esin´naµ. esinaµ.
Dat. es´naµ. esin´naµ. es´naµ.
Acc. es´. esin´, esiniyo. es´ni, esi.
Ins. es´hi, es´bhi. esin´hi, esin´bhi. es´hi, es´bhi.
Abl. es´hi, es´bhi. esin´hi, esin´bhi. esihi, esibhi.
Loc. es´su. esin´su. es´su.
Voc. es´. esin´. es´.
     
Decline like es´
Masculine Feminine Neuter
ekŒk´, solitary. ekŒkin´, ekŒki.
cŒr´, roaming. cŒrin´, cŒri.
ekakkh´, one eyed. ekakkhin´, ekakkhi.
macchar´, niggardly. maccharin´, macchari.
sčr´, wise. sčrin´, sčri.
jay´, victorious. jayin´, jayi.

211. Adjectives in u (short)

212. These are declined in the Masculine like bhikkhu, in the Feminine like nad´, and in the Neuter like cakkhu.

213. The Feminine base is formed by the addition of ni.

214. Declension of Garu (stem), heavy

Singular
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. garu. garun´. garu.
Gen. garussa, garuno. garuniyŒ. garussa, garuno.
Dat. garussa, garuno. garuniyŒ. garussa, garuno.
Acc. garuµ. garuniµ. garuµ.
Ins. garunŒ. garuniyŒ. garunŒ.
Abl. garunŒ, garusmŒ, garumhŒ. garuniyŒ. garunŒ, garusmŒ, garumhŒ.
Loc. garusmiµ, garumhi. garuniyŒ, garuniyaµ. garusmiµ, garumhi.
Voc. garu. garun´. garu.
       
Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. garč, garavo. garun´, garuniyo. garčni, garč.
Gen. garčnaµ. garun´naµ. garčnaµ.
Dat. garčnaµ. garun´naµ. garčnaµ.
Acc. garč, garavo. garun´, garuniyo. garčni, garč.
Ins. garčhi, garčbhi. garun´hi, garun´bhi. garčhi, garčbhi.
Abl. garčhi, garčbhi. garun´hi, garun´bhi. garčhi, garčbhi.
Loc. garčsu. garun´su. garčsu.
Voc. garč, garavo. garun´, garuniyo. garčni, garč.
     
Decline like garu.
Masculine Feminine Neuter
bahu, many. bahun´, bahu.
sŒdu, agreeable. sŒdun´, sŒdu.
sŒdhu, good. sŒdhun´, sŒdhu.
dattu, stupid. dattun´, dattu.

215. Adjectives in č (long)

216. Adjectives in č form their Feminine by means of n´, č being shortened before it.

217. They are declined, in the Masc. like sayambhč, and in the Feminine like nad´ and in the Neut. like cakkhu.

218. Declension of Vi––č, wise

Singular
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. vi––č. vi––un´. vi––č.
Gen. vi––ussa, vi––uno. vi––uniyŒ. vi––ussa, vi––uno.
Dat. vi––ussa, vi––uno. vi––uniyŒ. vi––ussa, vi––uno.
Acc. vi––uµ. vi––uniµ. vi––uµ.
Ins. vi––unŒ. vi––uniyŒ. vi––unŒ.
Abl. vi––unŒ, vi––usmŒ, vi––umhŒ. vi––uniyŒ. vi––unŒ, vi––usmŒ, vi––umhŒ.
Loc. vi––usmiµ, vi––umhi. vi––uniyŒ, vi––uniyaµ. vi––usmiµ, vi––umhi.
Voc. vi––č. vi––un´. vi––č.
       
Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. vi––č, vi––uvo. vi––un´, vi––uniyo. vi––čni, vi––č.
Gen. vi––čnaµ. vi––un´naµ. vi––čnaµ.
Dat. vi––čnaµ. vi––un´naµ. vi––čnaµ.
Acc. vi––č, vi––uvo. vi––un´, vi––uniyo. vi––čni, vi––č.
Ins. vi––čhi, vi––čbhi. vi––un´hi, vi––un´bhi. vi––čhi, vi––čbhi.
Abl. vi––čhi, vi––čbhi. vi––un´hi, vi––un´bhi. vi––čhi, vi––čbhi.
Loc. vi––čsu. vi––un´su. vi––čsu.
Voc. vi––č, vi––uvo. vi––un´, vi––uniyo. vi––čni, vi––č.
   
Decline like vi––č, in the Masculine, Feminine and Neuter.
niddŒlč, sleepy. pabhč, powerful.
matta––č, temperate. kata––č, grateful.

219. Adjectives with Consonantal Bases

220. Adjectives with consonantal bases are of three kinds:
(1) those the stem of which ends in at or ant.
(2) those the stem of which ends in mat or mant.
(3) those the stem of which ends in vat or vant.

221. All the adjectives in mat, mant, and vat, vant, are formed from nouns by means of suffixes mŒ and vŒ, (whose original base is mat and vat), which express possession of the quality or state indicated by the noun to which they are affixed.

222. It must, however, be remarked that vΠand mΠare not affixed indiscriminately. The following rule is invariable.

(a) Suffix vΠis added only to nouns ending in a.
(b) Suffix mΠis always added to nouns ending in i and u.

Example
Noun Adj.
mŒna, pride. mŒnavŒ, having pride, viz, proud.
guöa, virtue. gunavŒ, having virtue, viz., virtuous.
bhoga, wealth. bhogavŒ, possessing wealth, viz., wealthy.
bala, strength. balavŒ, possessing strength, viz., strong.
   
Example
Noun Adj.
suci, purity. sucimŒ, endowed with purity, viz., pure.
sati, mindfulness. satimŒ, possessed of mindfulness, viz., mindful.
khanti, patience. khantimŒ, endowed with patience, viz., patient.
hetu, cause. hetumŒ, having a cause, causal.
bandhu, relative. bandhumŒ, having a relative.

223. The Feminine is formed by adding ´ to either of the bases viz, mat, mant or vat, vant; for instance:

Stem Masculine Feminine
guöavat. guöavŒ. guöavat´.
guöavant.   guöavant´.
jutimat. jutimŒ. jutimat´.
jutimant.   jutimant´.

224. In the Nom., Acc., and Voc. sing. the Neuter is formed by adding µ after vŒ and mŒ, the long Œ being shortened (4, 34); and ni to the stem in vant and mant, for the Nom., Acc., and Voc. plural.

Stem Masculine Feminine
    Singular Plural
jutimant. jutimŒ. jutimaµ. jutimantŒni.
guöavant. guöavŒ. guöavaµ. guöavantŒni.

225. Declension of adjectives in at or ant

226. Declension of MahΠ(stem: Mahat, Mahant)

Singular
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. mahaµ, mahanto. mahat´, mahant´. mahaµ, mahantaµ.
Gen. mahato, mahantassa. mahatiyŒ, mahantiyŒ. mahato, mahantassa.
Dat. mahato, mahantassa. mahatiyŒ, mahantiyŒ. mahato, mahantassa.
Acc. mahantaµ. mahatiµ, mahantiµ. mahantaµ.
Ins. mahatŒ, mahantena. mahatiyŒ, mahantiyŒ. mahatŒ, mahantena.
Abl. mahatŒ, mahantasmŒ, mahantamhŒ. mahatiyŒ, mahantiyŒ. mahatŒ, mahantasmŒ, mahantamhŒ
Loc. mahati, mahante, mahantasmiµ, mahantamhi. mahatiyŒ, mahantiyŒ, mahatiyaµ, mahantiyaµ. mahati, mahante, mahantasmiµ, mahantamhi.
Voc. mahaµ, mahŒ, maha. mahat´, mahant´. mahaµ, mahŒ, maha.
       
Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. mahanto, mahantŒ. mahat´, mahatiyo, mahant´, mahantiyo. mahantŒni, mahantŒ.
Gen. mahataµ, mahantŒnaµ. mahat´nam, mahant´naµ. mahataµ, mahantŒnaµ.
Dat. mahataµ, mahantŒnaµ. mahat´nam, mahant´naµ. mahataµ, mahantŒnaµ.
Acc. mahante, mahantŒ, mahanto. mahat´, mahatiyo, mahant´, mahantiyo. mahantŒni, mahantŒ.
Ins. mahantehi, mahantebhi. mahant´hi, mahant´bhi, mahat´hi, mahat´bhi. mahantehi, mahantebhi.
Abl. mahantehi, mahantebhi. mahant´hi, mahant´bhi, mahat´hi, mahat´bhi. mahantehi, mahantebhi.
Loc. mahantesu. mahat´su, mahant´su. mahantesu.
Voc. mahantŒ, mahanto. mahat´, mahatiyo, mahant´, mahantiyo. mahantŒni, mahantŒ.

Remarks.
(a) The declension of mahŒ should be carefully studied, as all the Present Participles, in at and ant, as for instance gacchaµ or gacchanto, karaµ or karanto, pacaµ or pacanto, are declined like it.
(b) We have already given (167) the declension of arahaµ which, in the Nom. sing, has also the form arahŒ.
(c) The word santo (167) meaning a good man, is similarly declined; the form sabbhi, however, is also found in the Ins. and Abl. plural.

Exercise

Decline like mahaµ (stem: mahat, mahant), in the Masculine, Feminine and Neuter.
caraµ, caranto (stem: carat, carant) walking, roaming.
bhu–jaµ, bhu–janto (stem: bhu–jaĘ, bhu–jant) eating.
karaµ, karanto (stem: karat, karant) doing.
saraµ, saranto (stem: sarat, sarant) remembering.
vasaµ, vasanto (stem: vasat, vasant) living.
pucchaµ, pucchanto (stem: pucchat, pucchant) asking.

227. Declension of adjectives in mat or mant

228. Declension of Dh´mŒ, wise (stem: Dh´mat, Dh´mant)

Singular
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. dh´mŒ, dh´manto. dh´mat´, dh´mant´. dh´maµ, dh´mantam.
Gen. dh´mato, dh´mantassa. dh´matiyŒ, dh´mantiyŒ. dh´mato, dhimantassa.
Dat. dh´mato, dh´mantassa. dh´matiyŒ, dh´mantiyŒ. dh´mato, dhimantassa.
Acc. dh´maµ, dh´mantaµ. dh´matiµ, dh´mantiµ. dh´maµ, dh´mantaµ.
Ins. dh´matŒ, dh´mantena. dh´matiyŒ, dh´mantiyŒ. dh´matŒ, dh´mantena.
Abl. dh´matŒ, dh´mantŒ, dh´mantasmŒ, dh´mantamhŒ. dh´mantiyŒ, dh´matiyŒ. dh´matŒ, dh´mantŒ, dh´mantasmŒ, dh´mantamhŒ.
Loc. dh´mati, dh´mante, dh´mantasmiµ, dh´mantamhi. dh´matiyŒ, dh´mantiyŒ, dh´matiyaµ, dh´mantiyaµ. dh´mati, dh´mante, dh´mantasmiµ, dh´mantamhi.
Voc. dh´maµ, dh´mŒ, dh´ma, dh´mantŒ, dh´manta. dh´mat´, dh´mant´. dh´maµ, dh´mŒ, dh´ma, dh´manta, dh´mantŒ.
       
Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. dh´mantŒ, dh´manto, dh´mŒ. dh´mat´, dh´matiyo, dh´mant´, dh´mantiyo. dh´mantŒni, dh´mantŒ.
Gen. dh´mataµ, dh´mantŒnaµ. dh´mat´naµ, dh´mant´naµ. dh´mataµ, dh´mantŒnaµ.
Dat. dh´mataµ, dh´mantŒnaµ. dh´mat´naµ, dh´mant´naµ. dh´mataµ, dh´mantŒnaµ.
Acc. dh´mante. dh´mat´, dh´matiyo, dh´mant´, dh´mantiyo. dh´mantŒni, dh´mantŒ.
Ins. dh´mantehi, dh´mantebhi. dh´mat´hi, dh´mat´bhi, dh´mant´hi, dh´mant´bhi. dh´mantehi, dh´mantebhi.
Abl. dh´mantehi, dh´mantebhi. dh´mat´hi, dh´mat´bhi, dh´mant´hi, dh´mant´bhi. dh´mantehi, dh´mantebhi.
Loc. dh´mantesu. dh´mant´su, dh´mat´su. dh´mantesu.
Voc. dh´mantŒ, dh´manto, dh´mŒ. dh´mat´, dh´matiyo, dh´mant´, dh´mantiyo. dh´mantŒni, dh´mantŒ.

Exercise

Decline like dhimŒ (stem: dh´mat, dh´mant), in the Masculine, Feminine and Neuter:
gomΠ(stem: gomat, gomant) a cattle owner.
puttimΠ(stem: puttimat, puttimant) having sons.
khŒnumŒ (stem: khŒnumat, khŒnumant) having stumps.
ketumΠ(stem: ketumat, ketumant) glorious, victorious lit., having banners.
hetumΠ(stem: hetumat, hetumant) having a cause.
cakkhumΠ(stem: cakkhumat cakkhumant) enlightened.

229. Declension of adjectives in vat or vant

Remarks. The declension of Adjectives in vat, vant is the same as that of those in mat, mant; the only difference being that, of course, v replaces m throughout.

230. Declension of GuöavŒ, virtuous (stem: guöavat, guöavant)

Singular
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. guöavŒ, guöavanto. guöavat´, guöavant´. guöavaµ, guöavantam.
Gen. guöavato, guöavantassa. guöavatiyŒ, guöavantiyŒ. guöavato, guöavantassa.
Dat. guöavato, guöavantassa. guöavatiyŒ, guöavantiyŒ. guöavato, guöavantassa.
Acc. guöavaµ, guöavantaµ. guöavatiµ, guöavantiµ. guöavaµ, guöavantaµ.
Ins. guöavatŒ, guöavantena. guöavatiyŒ, guöavantiyŒ. guöavatŒ, guöavantena.
Abl. guöavatŒ, guöavantŒ, guöavantasmŒ, guöavantamhŒ. guöavantiyŒ, guöavatiyŒ. guöavatŒ, guöavantŒ, guöavantasmŒ, guöavantamhŒ.
Loc. guöavati, guöavante, guöavantasmiµ, guöavantamhi. guöavatiyŒ, guöavatiyaµ, guöavantiyŒ, guöavantiyaµ. guöavati, guöavante, guöavantasmiµ, guöavantamhi.
Voc. guöavaµ, guöavŒ, guöava, guöavantŒ, guöavanta. guöavat´, guöavant´. guöavaµ, guöavŒ, guöava, guöavanta, guöavantŒ.
       
Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. guöavantŒ, guöavanto, guöavŒ. guöavat´, guöavatiyo, guöavant´, guöavantiyo. guöavantŒni, guöavantŒ.
Gen. guöavataµ, guöavantŒnaµ. guöavat´naµ, guöavant´naµ. guöavataµ, guöavantŒnaµ.
Dat. guöavataµ, guöavantŒnaµ. guöavat´naµ, guöavant´naµ. guöavataµ, guöavantŒnaµ.
Acc. guöavante. guöavat´, guöavatiyo, guöavant´, guöavantiyo. guöavantŒni, guöavantŒ.
Ins. guöavantehi, guöavantebhi. guöavat´hi, guöavat´bhi, guöavant´hi, guöavant´bhi. guöavantehi, guöavantebhi.
Abl. guöavantehi, guöavantebhi. guöavat´hi, guöavat´bhi, guöavant´hi, guöavant´bhi. guöavantehi, guöavantebhi.
Loc. guöavantesu. guöavant´su, guöavat´su. guöavantesu.
Voc. guöavantŒ, guöavanto, guöavŒ. guöavat´, guöavatiyo, guöavant´, guöavantiyo. guöavantŒni, guöavantŒ.

231. There is another not very numerous class of Adjectives formed from nouns and roots by means of suffixes Œv´ and v´.

232. The original stem of Œv´ and v´ is Œvin and vin and they therefore belong to the Consonantal declension. V´ is used after nouns, and Œv´ after roots.

233. The Feminine is formed by adding the Feminine suffix n´, before which final long ´ is shortened.

234. In the Neuter, final i is shortened in the Nom. and Voc. singular; in the plural, before Neuter suffix ni final ´ remains unchanged.

235. v´, like mŒ and vŒ, expresses possession.

Examples
      Neuter
Noun Adj. Masc. Adj. Fem. Singular Plural
medhŒ, wisdom. medhŒv´. medhŒvin´. medhŒvi. medhŒv´n´.
Ăpass, to see. passŒv´. passŒvin´. passŒvi. passŒv´n´.

The declension of these Adjectives presents no difficulty. They are declined in the Masculine like daö¶´, in the Feminine like nad´ and in the Neuter like vŒri.

236. Negative Adjectives

237. Negative Adjectives are obtained by prefixing to affirmative Adjectives the prefix a and ana.

Remarks. a is used before a consonant, and ana before a vowel.

Examples
d´gha, long. ad´gha, not long.
Œkula, turbid. anŒkula, not turbid, clear.

Comparison

238. The Comparison of Adjectives is formed in two ways:
(1) by adding tara for the comparative and tama for the Superlative, to the Masculine bases of the Positive.
(2) by adding iya or iyya for the comparative, and iĘĘha, issika for the Superlative, to the Masculine bases of the Positive.

239. The Comparative and Superlative are declined in the Masculine like deva, in the Feminine like ka––a and in the Neuter like rčpaµ.

Examples

(1) tara, tama.
Positive Comparative Superlative
suci, pure. sucitara, purer. sucitama, purest.
pŒpa, evil. pŒpatara, more evil. pŒpatama, most evil.
omaka, vile. omakatara, viler. omakatama, vilest.
hari, green. haritara, greener. haritama, greenest.

Remarks. Of the above Comparative and Superlative bases, the Masculine is, sucitaro, sucitamo; the Feminine, sucitarŒ, sucitamŒ, and the Neuter, sucitaraµ, etc., etc.

(2) iya (iyya), iĘĘha, issika.
Positive Comparative Superlative
pŒpa, evil. pŒp´ya, more evil. pŒpiĘĘha, most evil.
  pŒpiyya more evil. pŒpissika, most evil.
khippa, quick. khippiya, quicker. khippiĘĘha, quickest.
  khippiyya, quicker. khippissika, quickest.
kaĘĘha, bad. kaĘĘhiya, worse. kaĘĘhiĘĘha, worst.
  kaĘĘhiyya, worse. kaĘĘhissika, worst.

240. With many, we should say most, adjectives, the suffixes of (238-1) tara, tama or of (2) iya, iyya, iĘĘha, issika, may be used interchangeably.

Examples
pŒpatara or pŒpiya.
khippatara or khippiya.
pŒpatama or pŒpiĘĘha or pŒpissika, etc.

241. The comparatives in iya, iyya, are declined like mano (159).

It will be remarked that, before iya, iyya, iĘĘha and issika, the final vowel of the Positive Adjective is dropped.

243. Adjectives formed by means of the possessive suffixes, ma (mat), vŒ (vat) (221), and v´, vin (231), drop these suffixes and the vowel which precedes them, before iya, iyya, iĘĘha and issika.

Examples
(a) guöavŒ+iyo = guöa+iyo = guö+iyo = guöiyo.
Similarly: guö+iyyo, guöiyyo: guö-iĘĘha, etc.
(b) medhŒv´+iyo = medhŒ+iyo = medh+iyo = medhiyo
Similarly: medh-iyyo, medhiyyo; medh-iĘĘha, medhiĘĘha, etc.
(c) satimŒ+iyo = sati+iyo = sat+iyo = satiyo
Similarly: sat-iyyo = satiyyo; sat-iĘĘha = satiĘĘha, etc.

244. Tara may be superadded to the Superlative iĘĘha, as, pŒpiĘĘhatara.

245. The Acc. sing. of most Adjectives is used adverbially.

Examples
Adjective Adverb
khippa, quick. khippaµ, quickly.
sukha, happy. sukhaµ, happily.
s´gha, swift. s´ghaµ, swiftly.
manda, stupid. mandaµ, stupidly.

246. The Absolute Superlative is formed by prefixing ati to the Positive adjective:

atikhippa, very quick, extremely quick, too quick.
atippasattha, very excellent.
atithoka, very little, too little, excessively little.

247. Some Adjectives form their Comparison irregularly.

Positive Comparative Superlative
antika, near. nediya, nearer. nediĘĘha, nearest.
bŒÂha, strong. sŒdhiya, stronger. sŒdhiĘĘha, strongest.
  sŒdhiyya, stronger.  
appa, few. kaöiya, fewer. kaniĘĘha, fewest.
yuva, young. kaöiya, younger. kaniĘĘha, youngest.
vu¶¶ha, old. jeyya, older. jeĘĘha, oldest.
pasattha, excellent, good. seyya, better. seĘĘha, most excellent, best.
garu, heavy. gariya, heavier. gariĘĘha, heaviest.

248. Any substantive is used in the sense of an adjective when it is the last member of a bahubbihi compound (see chapter on compounds, bahubbihi) qualifying a noun or a pronoun expressed or understood.

249. The noun thus used, whether Feminine or Neuter, assumes the form of the Masculine.

Examples
Noun as Adjective.
(i) dassanaµ (neut.) looking. ruddadassano kumbh´lo a fierce-looking crocodile.
(ii) jaşghŒ (fem.) leg. d´ghajaşgho puriso, a long-legged man.
(iii) pa––Œ (fem.) wisdom. mahŒpa––o, having great wisdom, very wise.
(iv) s´laµ (neut.) morality. sampannas´lo, one who is full of morality: moral, virtuous.
(v) hattho (masc.) hand. chinnahatthena purisena kato, done by a man whose hands have been cut off.