Practical Grammar of the Pli Language
539. Declinable stems are frequently joined to one another to form compounds. In the older language, compounds are simple and rarely consist of more than 2 or 3 stems, but the later the language (i.e. in the commentaries and sub-commentaries) the more involved they become.
540. Compounds may also have an indeclinable as the first member; there are even a few compounds made up entirely of indeclinables.
Remarks. The Case Endings of the first member or members of a compound are generally dropped; only in a few instances are they preserved.
541. There are six
kinds of Compound Words:
(i) dvanda, Copulative or Aggregative Compounds.
(ii) tappurisa, Dependent Determinate Compounds.
(iii) kammadhraya, Descriptive Determinate Compounds.
(iv) digu, Numeral Determinate Compounds.
(v) abyayibhva, Adverbial Compounds.
(vi) bahubbihi, Relative Or Attributive Compounds.
Remarks. Native grammarians distribute the above into four classes by making. Nos. iii and iv subdivisions of No. ii, tappurisa; but this classification, through lack of sufficient distinctness, confuses the student unnecessarily. We shall therefore follow the above division (541).
Dvanda (Copulative or Aggregative Compounds)
542. The members of these compounds are co-ordinate syntatically, in their uncompounded state; each member would be connected with the other by means of the conjunction ca, and
543. Dvanda Compounds
are of two kinds:
(i) The compound is a plural and takes the gender and declension of its last member.
(ii) The compound takes the form of a neuter singular and, whatever the number of its members, becomes a collective. This is the case generally with the names of: birds, parts of the body, persons of different sexes, countries, trees herbs, the cardinal points, domestic animals, things that form an antithesis, etc.
Remarks. The following rules are given
as to the order of the members of dvanda compounds:
(a) words in i and u are placed first;
(b) shorter words are placed before longer ones;
(c) “ and č (long), are generally shortened in the middle of the compound;
(d) sometimes a feminine noun, in the middle of the compound, takes the masculine form (candimasuriy) sometimes, or remains unchanged (jarmaraöaµ).
Examples of (i)
samaö ca brhmaö ca=samaöabrhman, samanas and brahmins.
dev ca manuss ca=devamanuss, gods and men.
devna ca manussna ca=devamanussnaµ, of gods and men.
candim ca suriyo ca=candimasuriy, the sun and the moon.
aggi ca dhčmo ca=aggidhčm, fire and smoke.
dhammo ca attho ca=dhammatth, the spirit and the word.
sriputte ca moggallne ca=sariputtamoggallne, in Sariputta and in Moggallana.
Examples of (ii)
Note that the compounds which come under no.(ii) sometimes assume the form of the plural like those of no.(i).
mukhansikaµ = mukha ca
nsik ca, the mouth and the nose.
chavimaµsalohitaµ = chavi ca maµsa ca lohita ca, the skin, flesh and blood.
jarmaraöaµ = ar ca marana ca, old age and death.
hatthapdaµ or hatthapd = hatth ca pd ca, the hands and feet.
hatthiassaµ = hatthino ca ass ca, elephants and horses.
kusalkusalaµ or kusalkusal = kusalaµ akusala ca, good and evil,
vajjimallaµ or vajjimall = vajj“ ca mall ca, the Vajjians and the Mallians.
544. The compounds which take the plural form are called: itaritara, because the members of the compound are considered separately; those that take the neuter singular form: samhra, because the several members are considered collectively, those that take either the plural or the neuter, are called: vikappasamhra.
Tappurisa (Dependent Determinate Compounds)
545. In these compounds the first member is a substantive in any case but the Nominative and the Vocative, qualifying, explaining or determining the last member.
(a) The Case-ending of the first member is elided.
(b) In a few cases, the Case-ending is not elided; these compounds are called: alutta tappurisa.
(c) The of such words as: rj, mt, pit, bhta, etc, is shortened in the first member.
(d) Generally, a tappurisa follows the gender of the last member.
(i) tappurisa with accusative case.
araagato=araaµ gato, gone to the forest.
sukhappatto=sukhaµ patto, attained happiness.
saccavdi=saccaµ vdi, speaking the truth.
kumbhakro=kumbhaµ kro; a pot-maker, a potter.
pattagho=pattaµ gho, receiving a bowl.
atthakmo=atthaµ kmo, wishing the welfare of.
(ii) tappurisa with instrumentive case.
buddhabhsito=buddhena bhsito, spoken by the Buddha.
viugarahito=vičhi garahito, censured by the wise.
sukhaŹaµ=sukehi haŹaµ, brought by parrots.
jaccandho=jtiy andho, blind by (from) birth.
urago=urena go, going on the breast, a snake.
pdapo=pdena po, drinking with the foot (root), a tree.
Remarks. In some tappurisa compounds, a
word, necessary to express properly the full meaning, is
guĀodano=guĀena saµsaŹŹho odano, rice mixed with molasses.
assaratho=assena yutto ratho=a carriage yoked with horses, a horse carriage.
asikalaho=asin kalaho, a combat with swords.
(iii) tappurisa with dative case (catutth“ tappurisa)
Remark. In these compounds, the last member designates the object destined for or attributed to that which is expressed by the first member.
kathinadussaµ=kathinassa dussaµ, cloth for the kathina robe,
(this is a robe sewn on a fixed day, each year as a meritorious act.).
saŗghabhattaµ=saŗghassa bhattaµ, rice (prepared) for the clergy.
buddhadeyyaµ=buddhassa deyyaµ, worthy to be offered to the Buddha.
rjrahaµ=rao arahaµ, worthy of (lit., to) the king.
(b) Compounds formed by adding kmo
"desirous of" to an infinitive are considered to be
tappurisas in the Dative relation. (n“ruttad“pan“,
kathetukmo=kathetuµ kmo, desirous to speak.
sotukmo=sotuµ kmo, desirous to hear.
gantukmo=gantuµ kmo, desirous to go.
(iv) tappurisa with ablative case.
Remarks. These express: fear of, separation or going away from, fredom from, etc.
nagaraniggato=nagaramh niggato, gone out from town.
rukkhapatito=rukkhasm patito, fallen from the tree.
ssanacuto=ssanamh cuto, fallen away from religion.
corabh“to=corbh“to, afraid of the thief.
ppabh“ruko=ppato bh“ruko, fearing sin.
ppajigucch“=ppato jigucch“; loathing evil.
bandhanamokkho=bandhanasm mokkho, freedom from bonds or fetters.
lokaggo=lokato aggo, greater than the world.
mtujo=mtito jo, born from a mother.
(v) tappurisa with genitive case. (chaŹŹha tappurisa).
(a) tappurisas in the Genitive relation are by far the most common.
(b) Final “ and č of the first member are as a rule shortened to i and u respectively.
(c) The word: ratti, night, takes the form rattaµ at the end of a tappurisa.
e.g. rjaputto=rao putto, the king's son, a prince.
dhaarsi=dhanaµ rsi, a heap of grains.
nadit“raµ=nadiy tiraµ, the river-bank. (from nad“).
bhikkhunisaŗgho=bhikkun“naµ saŗgho, the assembly of the nuns (from bhikkun“).
naruttamo=narnaµ uttamo, the greatest of men.
(vi) tappurisa with locative case.
araavso=arae vso, living in the forest.
dnajjhsayo=dne ajjhsayo, inclined to alms-giving.
dhammarato=dhamme rato, delighting in the Law.
vanacaro=vane cro, walking in the woods.
thalaŹŹho=thale Źho, standing on firm ground.
pabbataŹŹho=pabbatasmiµ Źho, standing on a mountain.
(a) Sometimes the first member of a tappurisa is placed last.
Example rjahaµso=haµsnaµ rj, the swan-king, but also: haµsarj.
(b) In these the Case-endings are not dropped:
pabhaŗkaro=pabhaµ karo, making light, the sun.
vessantaro=vessaµ taro, crossing over to the merchants (a king's name).
parassapadaµ=parassa padaµ, word for another, Active Voice.
attanopadaµ=attano padaµ, word for one's self, Reflective Voice.
kutojo=kuto jo, sprung whence?
antevsiko=ante vsiko, a pupil within, a resident pupil.
urasilomo=urasi (loc.) lomo, having hair on the breast, hairy-breasted.
The student will remark that the case of the first member may be any case but the Nominative and Vocative.
546. (iii) Kammadhraya. Descriptive Determinate Compounds
(a) In kammadhraya compounds, the adjective: mahanta assumes the form: mah, and, if the consonant which follows is reduplicated, the form: maha.
(b)The word: santa, good, being, takes the form; sa (Sansk. sat).
(c) The word: puma, a male, rejects its final a.
(d) When the two members of a kammadhraya are feminine, the first one assumes the form of the masculine.
(e) The Prefix na, not, is replaced by a before a consonant and by an before a vowel.
(f) Prefix ku, meaning bad, little, may become ka before a consonant, and kad before a vowel.
(g) In their uncompounded state, the two members of a kammadhraya are in the same case.
(i) The kammadharaya compound (which is also called: missakatappurisa) is divided into nine classes:
(1) visesanapubbapada kammadharaya, in
which the determining or qualifying word is placed first.
mahpuriso=mahanto puriso, a great man.
mahnad“=mahant“ nad“, a large river.
mahabbhayaµ=mahantaµ bhayaµ, great fear.
aparapuriso=aparo puriso, the other man.
kaöhasappo=kaöho sappo, a black snake.
n“luppalaµ=n“laµ uppalaµ, a blue lotus.
(2) visesanaparapada, or
visesanuttarapada-kammadhraya; in this, the second member
determines the first.
naraseŹŹho=naro seŹŹho, the oldest man.
purisuttamo=puriso uttamo, the greatest man.
buddhaghoscariyo=buddhaghoso cariyo, the teacher Buddhaghosa.
sriputtathero=sriputto thero, the Elder Sriputta.
(3) visesanobhayapada-kammadhraya, the two members of which are determinate.
Remarks. A word, as for instance, so,
he, is generally understood between the two members of these
s“tuöhaµ=s“taµ (ta ca) uöhaµ, heat and cold.
khajakhujjo=khajo (ca so) khujjo, (he is) lame (and) hump-backed.
andhabadhiro=andho (ca so) badhiro, (he is) blind (and) deaf.
katkataµ=kataµ(ca taµ) akataµ, (what is) done (and) not done.
sambhvanpubbapada-kammadhraya; in which the
first member indicates the origin of the second term, or the
relation in which the second term stands to the first. In these
compounds such words as: iti namely, thus called; evaµ thus,
called; saŗkhto, called, named; hutv, being are
generally understood, in order to bring out the full meaning of
hetupaccayo=hetu (hutv) paccayo, the term (middle term) being, or considered as, the cause, the term which is the cause or condition.
aniccasa=anicca iti sa, the idea, namely, Impermanence.
hinasamato=hino hutv samato, equal in being low, unworthy.
dhammabuddhi=dhammo iti buddhi, knowledge (arising from) the Law.
attadiŹŹhi=att iti diŹŹhi the (false) doctrine of Self.
(5) upam- or
upamnuttarapada-kammadhraya, in these compounds,
analogy is expressed between the two terms. The word: viya, like,
is understood between the two members.
buddhdicco=dicco viya buddho, the sun-like-Buddha.
munis“ho=s“ho viya muni, lion-like-sage, lion-sage.
saddhammaraµsi=raµsi viya saddhammo, Light-like-Good Law, the Light of the Good Law.
Remarks. The words: dicca, sun, s“ha, lion; puŗgava, usabha, bull; naga, elephant, are frequently used as in the above examples, to denote: superiority, greatness excellence, eminence, so that buddhdicco may be translated: the eminent Buddha; munis“ho, the great sage; munipuŗgavo, the eminent sage, etc.
avadhranapubbapada-kammadhraya, in which the first
member specifies a general term. Native grammarians, in resolving
these compounds, insert the word eva, just, even (but which in
these examples cannot be translated into English), between the
two terms of the compounds. In English, these compounds must be
translated as if they were in the Genitive relation.
guöadhanaµ=guno eva dhanaµ, wealth of virtues.
s“ladhanaµ=s“laµ eva dhanaµ, treasure of morality or of piety.
pasatthaµ=paa eva satthaµ, the sword of wisdom.
papajjoto=pa eva pajjoto, the lamp of wisdom.
avijjmal=avijj eva malaµ, the stain of ignorance.
kammadhraya, the first member of which is: ku, (see f).
kuputto=ku+putto, a bad son.
kuds=ku+ds, bad slaves.
kadannaµ=kad+annaµ, bad food.
kpuriso=k+puriso, a bad man.
kadariyo=kad+ariyo, badly noble, not noble, ignoble, miserly, stingy.
kalavaöaµ=ka+lavaöaµ, a little salt.
naniptapubbapada-kammadhraya, (see e).
an“ti=na+iti free from calamity, secure.
ančmi=na+čmi, not having waves, waveless.
anatikkamma=na+atikkamma (gerd.), not transgressing or trespassing.
anatthakmo=na+atthakmo, not wishing for the welfare of.
pdipubbapada-kammadhraya, in which the first member
is p, pa or any other prefix.
pvacanaµ=pa+vacanaµ, the excellent word, Buddha's word.
(Native grammarians take p to be the abbreviation of the word: pakaŹŹho=excellent).
pamukho=pa+mukho (having the face towards), facing, in front of, chief.
vikappo=vi+kappo (thought, inclination), option.
atidevo=ati+dev, Supreme deva or God. (note that dev becomes: devo).
abhidhammo=abhi+dhammo (Law, doctrine), transcending Doctrine.
uddhammo=ud+dhammo, wrong or false doctrines.
ubbinayo=ud+vinayo (Discipline for the monks), wrong Discipline.
sugandho=su+gandho, good smell, fragrance.
dukkataµ=du+kataµ, a bad, sinful act.
547. Nouns In Apposition
Nouns in Apposition are considered to be
vinayapiŹakaµ, the Vinaya. Basket (a part of the Buddhist Scriptures).
aŗgajanapadaµ, the Province of Bengal.
magadharaŹŹhaµ, the Kingdom of Magadh.
cittogahapati, Citta, the householder. sakkodevarj, Sakka, the Lord of gods.
Remark. Sometimes the last member of a
kammadhraya, being feminine, assumes the masculine form.
Example d“ghajaŗgho=d“gha+jaŗgh (feminine) long-legged.
548. (iv) Digu (Numeral Compounds)
There are two kinds of digu:
(i) samhra digu, considered as collective takes the form of the neuter sing in µ.
(ii) asamhra digu when the digu does not express a whole, but the objects indicated by the last member are considered individually, the compound as a rule taking the form of the plural.
(a) Some words, when last member of a digu, change their final vowel to a, if it be other than a.
(b) The stems only of the numerals are used as first members.
tilokaµ, the three worlds (collectively).
tiratanaµ the three Jewels (collectively).
catusaccaµ, the four Truths (collectively).
satthaµ=satta+ahaµ (day), seven days, a week.
pacasikkhpadaµ, the five Precepts (collectively).
dvirattaµ=dvi+ratti, two nights (remark a).
pacagavaµ=paca+gavo, (remark a).
tivaŗgulaµ=ti+v (inserted, 28) aŗguli, three fingers.
navasataµ, nine hundred.
catusahassaµ, four thousand.
tibhav, the three states of existence.
catudis, the four quarters.
pacindriyni, the five senses=paca+indriyni.
sakaŹasatni=sakaŹa+satni, one hundred carts.
catusatni, four hundreds.
dvisatasahassni, two hundred thousand, (dvi sata sahassni).
549. (v) Abyayibhva (Adverbial Compounds)
(a) These compounds have for first member an indeclinable (529).
(b) The abyayibhva generally assumes the form of the accusative singular in µ, and is indeclinable.
(c) If the final vowel of the last member is long is replaced by aµ; other long vowels (except ), are shortened.
upagaŗgaµ=upa+gaŗgyaµ (loc.), near the Ganges.
upanagaraµ=upa+nagaraµ, (loc.), near the town.
upagu=upa+gunnaµ (plural,) close to the cows.
anurathaµ=anu+rathe, behind the chariot.
yvaj“vaµ=yva+j“v (abl.), as long as life lasts.
antopsdaµ=anto+psdassa, within the palace.
anuvassaµ=anu+vassaµ, year after year, every year.
anugharaµ=house after house, in every house.
yathbalaµ=yath+balena, according to (one's) power.
pativtaµ=pati+vtaµ (acc.), against the wind.
tiropabbataµ=pabbatassa tiro, across the mountain.
uparipabbataµ=pabbatassa+upari, upon the mountain.
paŹisotaµ=sotassa+paŹilomaµ, against the stream.
adhogaŗgaµ=gaŗgya+adho, below the Ganges.
upavadhu=upa+vadhč, near (his) wife.
adhikumri=adhi+kumri, the young girl.
(ii) Sometimes, however, the case-ending
is retained; the cases thus retained being mostly the Ablative
and the Locative. But in most cases, the Neuter form is also met
with for the same compound. The Ablative termination may be
retained when the indeclinable is: pari, apa, , bahi,
yvajiv or yvajivaµ, as long as life lasts.
apapabbat or apapabbataµ, away from the mountain.
bahigm or bahigmaµ, outside the village.
bhavagg or bhavaggaµ, to the highest state of existence.
purruö or purruöaµ, (=aruöamh pure), before daylight.
pacchbhatt, or pacchbhattaµ, after meal.
tiropabbat or tiropabbate (loc.) or tiropabbataµ,
beyond, on the other side of, the mountain.
anto av“cimhi (loc.), in hell.
anut“re, along the bank.
antaravithiyaµ (loc.), in the street.
bahisöiyaµ (loc.), outside the curtain.
550. (vi) Bahubb“hi (Relative or Attributive Compounds)
(a) A bahubbihi compound, when resolved into its component parts, requires the addition of such relative pronouns as: "he, who, that, which," etc., to express its full meaning; a bahubbihi is therefore used relatively, that is, as an adjective, and consequently, the final member assumes the forms of the three genders, according to the gender of the noun which it qualifies. A bahubbihi is equal to a relative clause.
(b) All the Compounds explained above (dvanda, tappurisa, kammadhraya, d“gu, abyayibhva), become, if used as adjectives, bahubbihi Compounds.
(c) babubbihi being used as adjectives qualifying nouns, must agree in gender, number and case with the nouns which they qualify.
(d) It follows from (c) that a bahubbihi may be in any case relation but the Vocative.
The following are the different kinds of bahubbihi.
(1) patham-bahubbihi, Relative in
the Nominative Case.
Examples chinnahattho puriso=hand-cut man, a man whose hands have been cut off.
Here, chinnahattho is the bahubbihi qualifying the noun puriso.
lohitamakkhitaµ mukhaµ=lohitena makkhitaµ mukhaµ, the mouth besmeared with blood; lohita makkhitaµ is the bahubbihi.
susajjitaµ puraµ, a well-decorated city; susajjitaµ is the bahubbihi.
(2) dutiy-bahubbihi, Relative in
the Accusative Case; that is, the bahubbihi gives to the word
which it determines or qualifies the sense of the Accusative
gatasamaöo saŗghrmo=imaµ saŗghrmaµ samaöo gato, this monastery the priest came to, the monastery into which the priest came; gatasamaöo is the bahubbihi.
rčĀhanaro rukkho=so naro imaµ rukkhaµ rčĀho the tree into which the man climbed. rčĀhanaro is the bahubbihi.
(3) tatiya-bahubb“hi, Relative in the
Instrumentive Case; in which the bahubbihi gives to the word it
determines the sense of the Instrumentive relation.
jitindriyo samano=yena jitni indriyni so samaöo, the samana by whom the senses have been conquered. jitindriyo is the bahubbihi.
vijitamro bhagav=so bhagav yena mro vijito, the Blessed One by whom Mara was vanquished, the Blessed One who vanquished Mara. vijitamro is the bahubibhi.
(4) catutth“ bahubbihi, Relative in the
Dative Case; in which the bahubbihi gives to the word it
determines the sense of the Dative relation.
dinnasuŗko puriso=yassa suŗko dinno so, he to whom tax is given. dinnasuŗko is the bahubbihi.
upan“tabhojano samaöo=so samaöo yassa bhojanaµ upan“taµ, the priest to whom food is given. upan“tabhojano is the bahubbihi.
(5) pacam“-bahubbihi, Relative in
the Ablative case; in which the compound gives to the word
determined the sense of the Ablative relation.
niggatajano gmo=asm gmasm jan niggat, that village from which the people have departed, an abandoned village. niggatajano is the bahubbihi.
apagatakĀakaµ vatthaµ=idaµ vatthaµ yasm kĀak apagat, the cloth from which (the) black spots have departed=a cloth free from black spots. apagatakĀakaµ is the bahubbihi.
(6) chaŹŹh“-bahubb“hi, Relative in
the Genitive Case; in which the compound gives to the word it
determines the sense of the Genitive relation.
chinnahattho puriso=so puriso yassa hattho chinno, the man whose hands are cut off. chinnahattho is the babhubbihi.
visuddhas“lo jano=so jano yassa s“laµ visuddhaµ, that person whose conduct is pure, a moral person. visuddhas“lo is the bahubbihi.
(7) sattama-bahubb“hi, Relative in the
Locative Case; that is, in which the bahubbihi gives to the
determined word the sense of the Locative case.
sampannasasso janapado=yasmiµ janapade sassni sampannni, a district in which the crops are abundant, a fertile district. sampannasasso is the bahubbibi.
bahujano gmo=yasmiµ gme babč jan honti, a village in which are many persons, a populous village. bahujano is the bahubbihi.
(e) The word determined by the bahubbihi
Compound is often understood or implied and not expressed.
dinnasuŗko (4)=he who receives taxes, a tax collector.
jitindriyo (3)=he who has subdued his senses.
lohitamakkhito (1)=besmeared with blood.
sattahaparinibbuto=dead since a week.
somanasso=joyful (lit., he to whom joy has arisen).
chinnahattho (6)=he whose hands have been cut off.
msajato=a month old (lit., he who is born since one month).
vijitamro (3)=he who has conquered Mara, the Buddha.
(f) In some bahubbihi, the determining
word may be placed either first or last without changing the
hatthachinno or chinnahattho.
jtamso of msajto.
(g) Feminine nouns ending in “, č as
well as stems ending in tu (=t, see, 163, words declined
like satth,) generally take the suffix ka, when they are
the last member of a bahubbihi; possession is then implied:
bahukattuko deso=a place in which there are many artisans.
bahukumrikaµ kulaµ=a family in which there are many girls.
bahunadiko janapado=a district with many rivers.
Note that long “ is shortened before ka; the same remark applies to long č.
(h) When a feminine noun is the last
member of a babubbihi, it takes the masculine form if determining
a masculine noun, and the first member, if also feminine, drops
the sign of the feminine:
Example d“gh jaŗgh, a long leg; d“ghajaŗgh itth“, a long-legged woman, but: d“ghajaŗgho puriso a long-legged man.
(i) The adjective mah, may be used
as the first member of a bahubbihi:
Example mahpao, of great wisdom, very wise.
(j) Sometimes is added,to the
words: dhanu, a bow, dhamma, the Law, and a few others, when last
members of a bahubbihi:
gandhivadhanu=gandhivadhanv (27, “), Arjuna, he who has a strong bow.
paccakkhadhamm, but also paccakkhadhammo, to whom the Doctrine is apparent.
551. The student will have remarked that all the examples given above of bahubbihi, are digu, tappurisa, kammadhraya, dvanda and abyayibhva, used relatively. To make the matter clearer, however a few examples are here given.
dvanda used relatively.
nahtnulitto, bathed and anointed.
kusalkusalni kammni, good and bad actions.
tappurisa used relatively.
buddhabhsito dhammo, the Doctrine spoken by the Buddha=Buddhena bhsito dhammo.
sotukmo jano, a person desirous to hear, one desirous to hear.
nagaraniggato, one or he who has gone out of town.
kammadhraya used relatively.
guöadhano=rich in virtues.
khajakhujjo puriso=a lame and hump backed man.
digu used relatively.
dvimčlo rukkho=a two rooted tree.
pacasatni sakaŹni=five hundred carts.
sahassaraµsi=the thousand rayed=the sun.
abyayibhva used relatively.
saphala=saha phala, fruitful (lit., having fruits).
savhano mro, Mra with his monture.
nirapardho bodhisatto, the faultless Bodhisatta.
552. When the second member of a dutiy tappurisa Compound is a kita noun or Primary derivative, (see Chapter XIII, Primary and Secondary Derivation), and the first member a noun in the Accusative relation, the compound is called upapada. Such a compound may therefore be called indifferently: upapada or upapadatappurisa. or simply: tappurisa. (niruttid“pan“)
atthakmo=atthaµ kmo, wishing for the welfare of, (kmo is a kita derivative).
kumbhakro=kumbhaµ+kro, a pot-maker, a potter, (kro is a kito derivative).
pattagho=pattaµ gho, receiver of the bowl.
rathakro=rathaµ kro, carriage maker, cartwright.
brahmacr“=brahmaµ cr“, one who leads the higher life.
dhammač=dhammaµ č, he who knows the Law.
553. A few compounds are found which are quite anomalous in their formation, that is, they are made up of words not usually compounded together. These compounds must probably be considered as of very early formation, and be reckoned amongst the oldest in the language. We give a few examples:
vitatho=vi+tath, false, unreal.
yathtatho=yath+tath real, true, as it really is.
itih (=iti, thus+ha, lengthened to ), thus indeed, introduction, legend.
itihsa (=iti, thus+ha, indeed+sa, was), thus indeed it was=itih.
itih“tih (=itiha+itih )=itih, itihsa.
itivuttaµ (=iti, thus+vuttaµ P P.P. of vatti, to say), thus it was said; the name of a book of the Buddhist Scriptures.
aamaaµ (=aaµ+aaµ), one another.
paramparo (=paraµ+para), successive.
ahamahamik (=ahaµ, I+ahaµ+ika suffix), egoism, arrogance, the conceit of superiority lit., connected with I.
554. Compounds, as above explained, may themselves become either the first or the last member of another compound, or two compounds may be brought together to form a new one, and this new one again may become a member of another compound, and so on to almost any length, thus forming compounds within compounds. These compounds are mostly used relatively that is, they are bahubbihi. The student ought to bear in mind that, the older the language is, the fewer are these complex compounds, and the later the language, the more numerous do they become; it therefore follows that long compounds are a sign of decay and, to a certain extent, a test as to the relative age of a text.
varaöarukkhamčle, at the foot of the varaöa tree, is a tappurisa compound in the genitive relation, and is resolved as follows: varaöarukkhassa mčle; varaöarukkhassa is itself a kammadharaya compound=varaöa eva rukkha. It is therefore a tappurisa compound, the first member of which is a kammadharaya compound.
maraöabhayatajjito, terrified by the fear of death, a bahubbihi qualifying a noun understood, and is a tappurisa in the instrumentive relation: maraöabhayena tajjito; maraöabhaya is itself a tappurisa in the ablative: maran bhaya.
s“halaŹŹhakathparivattanaµ, the translation of the Singhalese Commentaries, is first: a tappurisa compound=sihalaŹŹhakathya parivattanaµ, second, another tappurisa: sihalya aŹŹhakath=the Commentaries of Ceylon, the Singhalese Commentaries.
aparimitaklasacitapuabalanibbattya, produced by the power accumulated during an immense period of time, the whole is a bahubbihi feminine in the Instrumentive.
We resolve it as:
aparimitaklasacitapuabala, a tappurisa
aparimitaklasacitapua, a kammadharaya determining bala;
aparimitaklasacita, a kammadharaya determining pua;
aparimitakla, a kammadharaya determining sacita;
lastly aparimita is a kammadharaya=a+parimita.
In its uncompounded state, it would run as follows: aparimite kle sacitassa puassa balena nibbattya.
Remark. The student should follow the above method in resolving compounds.
Changes of certain words in compounds.
555. Some words, when compounded, change their final vowel; when last members of a bahubbihi, they, of course, assume the ending of the three genders, according to the gender of the noun they determine. The most common are here given:
go, a cow, bullock, becomes gu, gavo or
pacagu, bartered with five cows (pacahi gohi kito); rjagavo the king's bullock (rao go);
dragavaµ, wife and cow (dro ca go); dasagavaµ, ten cows.
bhčmi, place, state, stage, degree, storey becomes bhčma:
jtibhčmaµ, birth place (jtiy bhčmi); dvibhčmaµ, two stages (dvi bhčmiyo); dvibhčmo, two storeyed. Ka, is sometimes superadded, as: dvibhčmako=dvibhčmo.
nad“, a river, is changed to nada:
pacanadaµ, five rivers; pacanado, having five rivers.
aŗguli, finger, becomes aŗgula (see, 548, a).
ratti, night, is changed to ratta (see,
548, a); here are a few more examples:
d“gharattaµ for a long time (lit. long nights=d“gh rattiyo; ahorattaµ, Oh! the night! (aho ratti);
a¶¶haratto, midnight (rattiy a¶¶haµ=the middle of the night).
akkhi, the eye, changes to akkha:
vislakkho, large eyed (vislni akkh“ni yassa honti); virčpakkho, having horrible eyes, name of the Chief of the Nagas (virčpni akkh“ni yassa, to whom (are) horrible eyes); sahassakkho, the thousand-eyed, a name of Sakka (akkh“ni sahassni yassa); parokkhaµ, invisible, lit., "beyond the eye" (akkhinaµ tirobhgo).
sakh, (masc.) friend, companion,
vyusakho, the breeze's friend, fire (vayuno sakh so); sabbasakho, the friend of all (sabbesaµ sakh).
att, self, one's self becomes
pahitatto, resolute, whose mind is bent upon, lit, directed towards (pahito pesito att yena, by whom the mind is directed upon); Źhitatto, of firm mind (Źhito att assa, whose mind is firm).
pum=male, a man, becomes puµ, and
final µ is assimilated to the following consonant
according to the usual rules:
pulliŗgaµ, the male sex: manhood, the masculine gender (puµ+lingaµ, characteristic, sign);
puŗkokilo, a male cuckoo (puµ+kokilo).
saha, with, is abbreviated to sa, which is placed at the beginning of compounds ka is sometimes superadded: sapicuka, of cotton, with cotton, as -sapicukaµ maö¶alikaµ, a ball of cotton, cotton ball; sadevako, with the deva worlds; saha is used in the same sense: sahodaka, with water, containing water (saha udaka).
santa, good, being, is also abbreviated
to sa (see, 546, b):
sappurisa, a good man; sajjano, well-born, virtuous (sa+jana, a person).
samna, same, similar, equal; is likewise shortened to sa:
sajti or sajtika, of the same species, of the same class (samnajti); sajanapado; of, or belonging to, the same district (samnajanapado); sanmo, of the same name (samno nmo); snbhi, of the same navel, uterine.
mahanta, becomes mah (see 546, a).
jy, wife, takes the forms
jni, jaµ, tudaµ*,
jayaµ, before the word pati, lord, husband:
jaypati, jayampati, jnipati, jampati, tudampati, husband and wife.
*The niruttid“pan“ has the following interesting note on the word tudaµ: "yath ca sakkaŹaganthesu 'dro ca pati ca dampat“' ti" And lower down: "tattha 'tu' saddo padapčraöamatte yujjati".
556. Many nouns and adjectives are compounded with Ćkar, to do and Ćbhč, to be, or with their derivatives very much in the manner of Verbal Prefixes.
557. The noun or
adjective stems thus used change final a or final i to “.
daĀha, hard, firm, daĀhikaroti, to make firm.
daĀhikaraöaµ, making firm, strengthening.
bahula, abundant, bahul“karoti, to increase, to enlarge.
bahul“karaöaµ, increasing; bahul“kato, increased.
bhasma, ashes, bhasmibhavati, to be reduced to ashes,
bhasmibhčto, reduced to ashes.