|[ Tipitaka Network ] An Elementary Pali Course||Unicode | Velthuis|
An Elementary Paa.li Course
A. Declension of Nouns Ending in a
1. In Paa.li nouns are declined according to the terminated endings a, aa, i, ii, u, uu, and o. There are no nouns ending in e. All nouns ending in a are either in the masculine or in the neuter gender.
2. There are three genders in Paa.li. As a rule males and those things possessing male characteristics are in the masculine gender, e.g., nara, man; suriya, sun; gaama, village. Females and those things possessing female characteristics are in the feminine gender, e.g., itthi, woman; ga`ngaa, river. Neutral nouns and most inanimate things are in the neuter gender, e.g., phala, fruit; citta, mind. It is not so easy to distinguish the gender in Paa.li as in English.
3. nara + o = naro. nara + aa = naraa. When two vowels come together either the preceding or the following vowel is dropped. In this case the preceding vowel is dropped.
B. Conjugation of Verbs
Present Tense - Active Voice
4. The verbs are often used alone without the corresponding pronouns since the pronoun is implied by the termination.
5. As there are seven conjugations in Paa.li which differ according to the conjugational signs, the present tense third person singulars of verbs are given. The roots are given in brackets.
6. In Paa.li sentences, in plain language, the subject is placed first, the verb last, and the object before the verb.
Translate into English.
Translate into Paa.li.
1. He protects.
* Suggested Solutions
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa.
Buddha sāsana.m cira.m ti.t.thatu.