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An Elementary Paa.li Course

Lesson XIII

A. Relative Pronouns

ya (pron.) who, which, that
SINGULAR
m. n. f.
Nominative yo ya.m yaa
Accusative ya.m ya.m
Instrumental yena yaaya
Ablative yamhaa, yasmaa yaaya
Dative, Genitive yassa yassaa, yaaya
Locative yamhi, yasmi.m yassa.m, yaaya.m
PLURAL
m. n. f.
Nominative ye ye, yaani yaa, yaayo
Accusative ye ye, yaani yaa, yaayo
Instrumental, Ablative yebhi, yehi yaabhi, yaahi
Dative, Genitive yesa.m, yesaana.m yaasa.m, yaasaana.m
Locative yesu yaasu
 
ta (pron.) who, he
SINGULAR
m. n. f.
Nominative so na.m, ta.m saa
Accusative na.m, ta.m na.m, ta.m
Instrumental nena, tena naaya, taaya
Ablative namhaa, tamhaa, nasmaa, tasmaa naaya, taaya
Dative, Genitive nassa, tassa tissaaya, tissaa, tassaa, taaya
Locative namhi, tamhi, nasmi.m, tasmi.m tissa.m, tassa.m, taaya.m
PLURAL
m. n. f.
Nominative ne, te ne, te, naani, taani naa, naayo, taa, taayo
Accusative ne, te ne, te, naani, taani naa, naayo, taa, taayo
Instrumental, Ablative nebhi, nehi, tebhi, tehi naabhi, naahi, taabhi, taahi
Dative, Genitive nesa.m, nesaana.m, tesa.m, tesaana.m taasa.m, taasaana.m
Locative nesu, tesu taasu

The forms beginning with t are more commonly used.

The pronouns ya and ta are frequently used together. They are treated as Correlatives.

Examples:
"Yo Dhamma.m passati so Buddha.m passati"
He who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha.
"Ya.m hoti ta.m hotu" --- Be it as it may
ya.m icchasi ta.m vadehi --- say what you wish
"Yo gilaana.m upa.t.thaati so ma.m upa.t.thaati"
He who serves the sick serves me.

eta (pron.) that [yonder]
SINGULAR PLURAL
m. n. f. m. n. f.
Nominative eso eta.m esaa ete ete, etaani etaa, etaayo
Accusative eta.m eta.m eta.m ete ete, etaani etaa, etaayo

The rest like ta, with the exception of forms beginning with n.

B. The Interrogative Pronoun

ka (pron.) who, which?
SINGULAR
m. n. f.
Nominative ko ka.m, ki.m kaa
Accusative ka.m ka.m, ki.m kaa
Instrumental kena kaaya
Ablative kamhaa, kasmaa kaaya
Dative, Genitive kassa, kissa kaaya, kassaa
Locative kamhi, kasmi.m, kimhi, kismi.m kaaya, kaaya.m

The rest like ya.

ci is suffixed to all the cases of ka in all the genders to form Indefinite Pronouns; e.g., koci, kaaci, etc. --- any.

The following adjectives are declined like ya:
a~n~na another
a~n~natara certain
apara other, subsequent, Western
dakkhi.na South
eka one, certain, some
itara different, the remaining
katara what? which? (generally of the two)
katama what? which? (generally of many)
pacchima West
para other, different
pubba first, foremost, Eastern, earlier
puratthima East
sabba all
uttara higher, superior, Northern

A~n~na, a~n~natara, itara, eka are sometimes declined in the Dative and Genitive feminine singular as: a~n~nissaa, a~n~natarissaa, itarissaa and ekissaa respectively; in the Locative feminine singular as: a~n~nissa.m, a~n~natarissa.m, itarissa.m and ekissa.m respectively.

Pubba, para, apara are sometimes declined in the Ablative masculine singular, as: pubbaa, paraa, and aparaa respectively; in the locative masculine singular, as: pubbe, pare, and apare respectively.

Words:
aadaaya (indec. p. p. [daa with aa])  having taken
disaa (f.) quarter, direction
ki.m (indec.) Why? what? pray
naama (n.) name; mind
(indec.) by name, indeed
(Sometimes used without a meaning.)
nu (indec.) pray, I wonder!
(Sometimes used in asking a question.)
payojana (n.) use, need
vaa (indec.) either, or

Exercise 13-A

Translate into English.

1. Ko naama tva.m?
2. Ko naama eso?
3. Ko naama te aacariyo?
4. Idaani eso ki.m karissati?
5. Ki.m tva.m eta.m pucchasi?
6. Esaa naarii te ki.m hoti?
7. Sve kim'ete karissanti?
8. Kassa bhikkhussa ta.m potthaka.m pesessaama?
9. Tesa.m dhanena me ki.m payojana.m?
10. Ko jaanaati 'ki.m'eso karissatii'ti?'
11. Kissa phala.m naama eta.m?
12. Kaaya.m disaaya.m tassaa jananii idaani vasati?
13. Kassa dhamma.m sotu.m ete icchanti?
14. "Yo Dhamma.m passati so Buddha.m passati, yo Buddha.m passati so Dhamma.m passati."
15. Ya.m tva.m icchasi ta.m etassa arocehi.
16. Ya.m te karonti tam* eva gahetvaa para.m loka.m gacchanti.
17. Yassa.m disaaya.m so vasati tassa.m disaaya.m ete'pi vasitu.m icchanti.
18. Eso naro eka.m vadati, esaa naarii a~n~na.m vadati.
19. Paresa.m bha.n.daani maya.m na ga.nhaama.
20. Etaani phalaani maa tassa saku.nassa detha.
21. Idaani sabbe'pi te Bhikkhuu uttaraaya disaaya a~n~natarasmi.m aaraame vasanti.
22. Etasmi.m nagare sabbe naraa apara.m nagara.m agami.msu.
23. Ki~nci'pi kaatu.m so na jaanaati.
24. Katama.m disa.m tumhe gantu.m iccheyyaatha - puratthima.m vaa dakkhi.na.m vaa pacchima.m vaa uttara.m vaa?
25. Kataraaya disaaya tva.m suriya.m passasi - pubaaya.m vaa aparaaya.m vaa?

* When a niggahita (.m) is followed by a vowel, it is sometimes changed into 'm'. See note in Exercise 10-A.

Exercise 13-B

Translate into Paa.li.

1. Who is she?
2. What is his name?
3. In which direction did he go?
4. Is he a relative of yours?
5. What is the name of that fruit?
6. From whom did you buy those books?
7. With whom shall we go today?
8. In whose garden are those boys and girls playing?
9. In which direction do you see the sun in the morning?
10. Of what use is that to him or to her?
11. To whom did he give those presents?
12. What is the use of your wealth, millionaire? You are not going to take all that with you to the other world. Therefore* eat well. Have no attachment to your wealth. Grief results thereby.** Do merit with that wealth of yours. Erect hospitals for the sick schools for children, temples for monks and nuns. It is those good actions you take with you when you go to the other world.
13. Those who do good deeds are sure to be born in good states.
14. Let him say what he likes.
15. We did not write all those letters.
16. You should not tell others all that you see with your eyes.
17. We like to live in cities in which wise men live.

* Use 'tasmaa'.

** Use 'tena'.


Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa.
Buddha sāsana.m cira.m ti.t.thatu.