tipitaka network ... his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta

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Pali Primer Exercise 1

Translate into English

1. Bhūpālo bhuñjati.
king / eats
The king eats.

2. Puttā sayanti.
sons / sleep
Sons sleep.

3. Vāṇijā sayanti.
merchants / sleep
Merchants sleep.

4. Buddho passati.
Buddha / sees
The Buddha sees.

5. Kumāro dhāvati.
boy / runs
The boy runs.

6. Mātulo kasati.
uncle / ploughs
The uncle ploughs.

7. Brāhmaṇā bhāsanti.
brahmins / speak
Brahmins speak.

8. Mittā gacchanti.
friends / go
Friends go.

9. Kassakā pacanti.
farmers / cook
Farmers cook.

10. Manusso chindati.
man / cuts
The man cuts.

11. Purisā dhāvanti.
men / run
Men run.

12. Sahāyako bhuñjati.
friend / eats
The friend eats.

13. Tathāgato bhāsati.
Buddha / speaks
The Buddha speaks.

14. Naro pacati.
man / cooks
The man cooks.

15. Sahāyā kasanti.
friends / plough
Friends plough.

16. Sugato āgacchati.
Buddha / comes
The Buddha comes.

Translate into Pali

1. Sons run.
puttā / dhāvanti
Puttā dhāvanti.

2. The uncle sees.
mātulo / passati
Mātulo passati.

3. The Buddha comes.
Buddho / āgacchati
Buddho āgacchati.

4. Boys eat.
kumārā / bhuñjanti
Kumārā bhuñjanti.

5. Merchants go.
vāṇijā / gacchanti
Vāṇijā gacchanti.

6. The man sleeps.
manusso / sayati
Manusso sayati.

7. Kings go.
bhūpālā / gacchanti
Bhūpālā gacchanti.

8. The brahmin cuts.
brāhmaṇo / chindati
Brāhmaṇo chindati.

9. Friends speak.
mittā / bhāsanti
Mittā bhāsanti.

10. The farmer ploughs.
kassako / kasati
Kassako kasati.

11. The merchant comes.
vāṇijo / āgacchati
Vāṇijo āgacchati.

12. Sons cut.
puttā / chindanti
Puttā chindanti.

13. Uncles speak.
mātulā / bhāsanti
Mātulā bhāsanti.

14. The boy runs.
kumāro / dhāvati
Kumāro dhāvati.

15. The friend speaks.
sahāyo / bhāsati
- Sahāyo bhāsati.
- Mitto bhāsati.

16. The Buddha sees.
Buddho / passati
Buddho passati.


Notes:

1. bhūpāla: king, lit. protector of the earth - a word rarely used in the texts. Other words for king include rāja (Narada Lesson 17, Warder p.153) and bhūpati (Lesson 25).

2. Here is a list of words related to bhāsati.
bhāsati - to speak;
1. akkosati - to scold, swear at, abuse, revile;
2. ajjhesati - to request, ask, bid;
3. atidisati - to give further explanation, to explain in detail;
4. adhibhāsati - to address, to speak to;
5. anukassati - to draw after, to repeat, recite, quote;
6. anudisati - to point out, direct, bid, address;
7. anubhāsati - to speak after, to repeat;
8. anusāsati - to advise, admonish, instruct in or give advice upon;
9. anuhasati - to laugh at, to ridicule;
10. anvādisati - to advise, dedicate, assign;
11. apadisati - to call to witness, to refer to, to quote;
12. abhisaṃsati - to execrate, revile, lay a curse on;
13. abhisiṃsati - to utter a solemn wish;
14. avahasati - to laugh at, deride, mock;
15. ādisati - to announce, tell, point out, refer to; to dedicate;
16. ukkaṃsati - to exalt, praise;
17. ukkāsati - to "ahem"!, to cough, to clear one's throat;
18. uddisati - to propose, point out, appoint, allot;
19. upakkosati - to scold, reprove, blame;
20. upadisati - to point out, show, advise, specify;
21. ūhasati - to laugh at, deride, mock;
22. obhāsati - to speak to, to rail at, offend, abuse;
23. ghasati - to eat;
24. ñasati - to bite (of snakes, scorpions);
25. namassati - to pay honour to, to venerate, honour, do homage to;
26. pakkosati - to call, summon;
27. paccakkosati - to curse in return;
28. paccanubhāsati - to speak out or mention correspondingly, to
enumerate;
29. paccābhāsati - to retort, recite, explain, relate;
30. paccāsati - to ask, beg, pray;
31. paccāsiṃsati - to expect, wait for, desire, hope for, ask;
32. paṭikkosati - to blame, reject, revile, scorn;
33. paṭipasaṃsati - to praise back or in return;
34. paṭibhāsati - to address in return or in reply;
35. paṭirosati - to annoy in return, to tease back;
36. pabhāsati - to tell, declare, talk;
37. paribhāsati - to abuse, scold, revile, censure, deiame;
38. parihasati - to laugh at, mock, deride;
39. pasaṃsati - to speak out, praise, commend, agree;
40. pasasati - to teach, instruct;
41. pahasati - to laugh, giggle;
42. pahassati - to laugh, be joyful or cheerful;
43. bhasati - to bark;
44. saṃsati - to proclaim, point out;
45. saṃhasati - to laugh with;
46. samaubhāsati - to converse or study together;
47. samādisati - to indicate, to command;
48. samukkaṃsati - to extol, to praise;
49. siṃsati - to neigh;
50. hasati & hassati - to laugh, to be merry; to neigh (of horses);
51. hesati - to neigh.

3. According to PED, the three words sahāya/sahāyaka/mitta all mean 'friend'. sahāya/sahāyaka in some passages may also mean companion or ally.

Contents

Series A

+ Lesson 1
+ Lesson 2
+ Lesson 3
+ Lesson 4
+ Lesson 5
+ Lesson 6
+ Lesson 7
+ Lesson 8
+ Lesson 9
+ Lesson 10
+ Lesson 11
+ Lesson 12
+ Lesson 13
+ Lesson 14
+ Lesson 15
+ Lesson 16
+ Lesson 17
+ Lesson 18
+ Lesson 19
+ Lesson 20
+ Lesson 21
+ Lesson 22
+ Lesson 23
+ Lesson 24
+ Lesson 25
+ Lesson 26
+ Lesson 27
+ Lesson 28
+ Lesson 29
+ Lesson 30
+ Lesson 31
+ Lesson 32

Series B

+ Lesson 1
+ Lesson 2
+ Lesson 3
+ Lesson 4
+ Lesson 5
+ Lesson 6
+ Lesson 7
+ Lesson 8
+ Lesson 9
+ Lesson 10
+ Lesson 11
+ Lesson 12

Series C

+ Lesson 1
+ Lesson 2
+ Lesson 3
+ Lesson 4
+ Lesson 5
+ Lesson 6
+ Lesson 7
+ Lesson 8
+ Lesson 9
+ Lesson 10
+ Lesson 11
+ Lesson 12
+ Lesson 13
+ Lesson 14
+ Lesson 15
+ Lesson 16
+ Lesson 17
+ Lesson 18
+ Lesson 19
+ Lesson 20
+ Lesson 21
+ Lesson 22
+ Lesson 23
+ Lesson 24
+ Lesson 25
+ Lesson 26
+ Lesson 27
+ Lesson 28
+ Lesson 29
+ Lesson 30

Series D

+ Lesson 1
+ Lesson 2
+ Lesson 3
+ Lesson 4
+ Lesson 5
+ Lesson 6
+ Lesson 7
+ Lesson 8
+ Lesson 9
+ Lesson 10
+ Lesson 11
+ Lesson 12
+ Lesson 13
+ Lesson 14
+ Lesson 15
+ Lesson 16
+ Lesson 17
+ Lesson 18
+ Lesson 19
+ Lesson 20
+ Lesson 21
+ Lesson 22
+ Lesson 23
+ Lesson 24
+ Lesson 25
+ Lesson 26
+ Buddheniya Vatthu
+ Paniyadinnass Vatthu
+ Duggatassa Danam
+ Sumanadeviya Vatthu
+ Selections from Dhammapada [more]

Series E

+ Exercise 1
+ Exercise 2
+ Exercise 3
+ Exercise 4
+ Exercise 5
+ Exercise 6
+ Exercise 7
+ Exercise 8
+ Exercise 9
+ Exercise 10
+ Exercise 11
+ Exercise 12
+ Exercise 13
+ Exercise 14
+ Exercise 15
+ Exercise 16
+ Exercise 17
+ Exercise 18
+ Exercise 19
+ Exercise 20
+ Exercise 21
+ Exercise 22
+ Exercise 23
+ Exercise 24
+ Exercise 25
+ Exercise 26
+ Exercise 27
+ Exercise 28

Series F

+ Exercise 1
+ Exercise 2
+ Exercise 3
+ Exercise 4
+ Exercise 5
+ Exercise 6
+ Exercise 7
+ Exercise 8
+ Exercise 9
+ Exercise 10
+ Exercise 11
+ Exercise 12
+ Exercise 13
+ Exercise 14
+ Exercise 15
+ Exercise 16
+ Exercise 17
+ Exercise 18
+ Exercise 19
+ Exercise 20
+ Exercise 21
+ Exercise 22


Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa.
Buddha sāsana.m cira.m ti.t.thatu.