An Elementary Pali Course Lesson VIII
Exercise 8-A: Translate into English.
1. Muni narapati.m Dhammena sa`nga.nhitvaa* agami.
sage / king / with Dhamma / having helped / went
The sage, having helped/supported the king with Dhamma, went (away).
Alt: The sage, having restrained the king in the Dhamma, left.**
Alt: The sage captivated the king with the Dhamma and went away.**
2. Kapayo rukkha.m aaruhitvaa phalaani khaadi.msu.
monkeys / tree / having climbed / fruits / ate
The monkeys, having climbed the tree, ate the fruits.
3. Kadaa tumhe kavimhaa potthakaani alabhittha?
when / you / from poet / books / received
When did you receive the books from the poet?
4. Aha.m tesa.m aaraame adhipati ahosi.m.
I / their / in temple / chief / was
I was the chief in their temple.
5. Maya.m gahapatiihi saddhi.m ga`ngaaya udaka.m aaharitvaa aggimhi khipimhaa.
we / with householders / from river / water / having
brought / into fire / threw
We, having brought water from the river with the householders, threw (it) into
Alt: We, together with the householders, brought water from the river and threw
it into the fire.
6. Narapati hatthena asi.m gahetvaa assa.m aaruhi.
king / with hand / sword / having taken / horse / mounted
The king, having taken the sword in (his) hand, mounted the horse.
7. Tva.m tuyha.m pati.m aadarena sa`nga.nho.
you / your / husband / with care / treated
You treated your husband with care.
8. Gahapatayo narapatino purato .thatvaa vadi.msu.
householders / of king / in front / having stood / spoke
The householders, having stood before the king, spoke.
9. Atithii amhaaka.m ghara.m aagantvaa aahaara.m bhu~nji.msu.
guests / our / [to] house / having come / food / ate
The guests came to our house and ate food.
10. Saku.naa khettesu viihi.m disvaa khaadi.msu.
birds / in fields / paddy / having seen / ate
The birds, having seen the paddy in the fields, ate (it).
11. Narapati gahapatimhaa ma.ni.m labhitvaa kavino adaasi.
king / from householder / jewel / having obtained / to
poet / gave
The king obtained the jewel from the householder and gave (it) to the poet.
12. Adhipati atithiihi saddhi.m aahaara.m bhu~njitvaa muni.m passitu.m agaami.
chief / with guests / food / having eaten / sage / to see
Having eaten the food with the guests, the chief went to see the sage.
13. Aha.m mayha.m ~naatino ghare cira.m vasi.m.
I / my / relative's / in house / for a long time / lived
I lived for a long time in my relative's house.
14. Sunakhaa a.t.thiini gahetvaa magge dhaavi.msu.
dogs / bones / having taken / on road / ran
The dogs took the bones and ran on the road.
15. Dhamma.m sutvaa gahapatiina.m Buddhe saddha.m uppajji.
Dhamma / having heard / to householders / in Buddha /
faith / arose
Lit: To the householders arose faith in the Buddha having heard the Dhamma.
After hearing the Dhamma, faith in the Buddha arose in the householders.
* Sa`nga.nhaati has three forms of indeclinable absolutive (or gerund):
(1) sa`nga.nhitvaa, (2) sa`ngahetvaa, (3) sa`ngayha. [The past participle is
** These alternative answers are rendered in idiomatic English.
[ sa`nga.nhaati = sa.m + ga.nhaati
sa.m- = a prefix which probably means "well, thoroughly, properly"
ga.nhaati = seize, take, grab
sa`nga.nhaati = "seize well"; captivate ]
*** went = agami; came = aagami.
Exercise 8-B: Translate into Pali.
1. The father of the sage was a king.
janako / munino / ahosi / narapati
Munino janako narapati ahosi.
2. O householders, why did you not advise your children to go to school?
gahapatayo / kasmaa / tumhe / na ovadittha / tumhaaka.m / daarake / gantu.m / paa.thasaala.m
Gahapatayo, kasmaa tumhe paa.thasaala.m gantu.m tumhaaka.m daarake na
3. We saw the king and came.
maya.m / disvaa / narapati.m / aagamimhaa
Narapati.m disvaa maya.m aagamimhaa.
4. I went and spoke to the poet.
aha.m / gantvaa / avadi.m / kavi.m
Aha.m gantvaa kavi.m avadi.m.
5. The chief of the temple sat on a chair and preached the Doctrine to the householders.
adhipati / aaraamassa / nisiiditvaa / pii.the / desesi / Dhamma.m / gahapatina.m
Pii.the nisiiditvaa aaraamassa adhipati gahapatina.m Dhamma.m desesi.
6. Only yesterday I wrote a letter and sent to my master.
eva / hiiyo / aha.m / likhitvaa / lekhana.m / pesesi.m /
mayha.m / adhipatissa
Eva hiiyo aha.m lekhana.m likhitvaa mayha.m adhipatissa pesesi.m.
7. The poet compiled a book and gave to the king.
kavi / sa`nga.nhitvaa / potthaka.m / adaasi / narapatino
Kavi potthaka.m sa`nga.nhitvaa narapatino adaasi.
8. Our relatives lived in the guest's house for a long time and left only
amhaaka.m / ~naatayo / vasitvaa / atithissa / ghare /
cira.m / nikkhami.msu / paato'va
Amhaaka.m ~naatayo cira.m atithissa ghare vasitvaa paato'va nikkhami.msu.
9. The householders bought paddy from the farmers and sowed in their fields.
gahapatayo / ki.nitvaa / viihi.m / kassakehi / vapi.msu /
tesa.m / khettesu
Gahapatayo kassakehi viihi.m ki.nitvaa tesa.m khettesu vapi.msu.
10. We sat on the benches and listened to the advice of the sage.
maya.m / nisiiditvaa / pii.thesu / su.nimhaa / ovaada.m /
Pii.thesu nisiiditvaa maya.m munissa ovaada.m su.nimhaa.
11. The king built a temple and offered to the sage.
narapati / katvaa / aaraama.m / puujesi / mu.nino
Aaraama.m katvaa narapati mu.nino puujesi.
12. After partaking* my morning meal with the guests I went to see my
bhu~njitvaa / mayha.m / paataraasa.m / atithinaa saddhi.m
/ aha.m / agami.m / passitu.m / mayha.m / ~naatayo
Mayha.m paataraasa.m atithinaa saddhi.m bhu~njitvaa aha.m mayha.m ~naatayo
13. I bought fruits from the market and gave to the monkey.
aha.m / ki.nitvaa / phalaani / aapa.nasmaa / adaasi.m /
Aha.m aapa.nasmaa phalaani ki.nitvaa kapino adaasi.m.
14. Why did you stand in front of the fire and play with the monkey?
kasmaa / tva.m / .thatvaa / purato / aggissa / kii.lo /
Kasmaa aggissa purato .thatvaa tva.m kapinaa saddhi.m kii.lo?
15. Faith arose in the king after hearing the Doctrine from the sage.**
saddhaa / uppajji / narapatino / sutvaa / Dhamma.m /
Munismaa Dhamma.m sutvaa saddhaa narapatino uppajji.
* Use 'bhu~njitvaa'.
** See (1) Exercise 8A/15. (2) http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/palidd/paliload.php?page=a12.
Various way to rewrite the sentence:
- So narapati muninaa dhamma.m sutvaa, tassa saddhaa uppajji.
he / the king / from the sage / the Doctrine / having heard / for him / faith /
- (Yo) narapati muninaa dhamma.m sutvaa, tassa saddhaa uppajji.