An Elementary Pali Course Lesson X
Exercise 10-A: Translate into English.
1. "Dhammo have rakkhati Dhammacaarii."
truth / certainly / protects / he who acts righteously
"The truth certainly protects him who acts righteously."
Alt: "Dhamma indeed protects the Dhammafarer*."
2. "Na duggati.m gacchati dhammacaarii."
does not / [to] evil state / get / he who acts righteously
"He who act righteously does not get to the evil state."
3. Naraa ca naariyo ca pu~n~na.m katvaa sugatiisu uppajjissanti.
men and / women and / good / having done / in good states / will be born
Men and women will be born in good states after doing good.
4. Bhaginii tassaa saaminaa saddhi.m janani.m passitu.m sve gamissati.
sister / her / with husband / mother / to see / tomorrow / will go
The sister will go to see the mother with her husband tomorrow.
5. Paapakaarii, tumhe paapa.m katvaa duggatiisu uppajjissatha.
evil doers / you / evil / having done / in evil states / will be born
Evil doers, you having done evil will be born in evil states.
6. Idaani maya.m brahmacaarino homa.
now / we / celibates / are
We are celibates now.
7. Mahesiyo naariina.m pu~n~na.m kaatu.m dhana.m denti.
queens / to women / good / to do / wealth / give
The queens donate money to do good for the womenfolk.
8. Hatthino ca hatthiniyo ca a.taviisu ca pabbatesu ca vasanti.
male elephants and / female elephants and / in forests and / in mountains and / live
The male and female elephants live in the forests and mountains.
9. Mayha.m saamino jananii bhikkhuniina~n** ca upaasikaana~n ca phaasu.m
my / husband's / mother / of nuns and / of female devotees and / comfort / treated
My husband's mother attended to the comfort of the nuns and female devotees.
10. Mahesi narapatinaa saddhi.m sve nagara.m paapu.nissati.
queen / with king / tomorrow / city / will arrive
The queen will arrive (in) the city with the king tomorrow.
11. Medhaavino ca medhaaviniyo ca appamaadena Dhamma.m ugga.nhitvaa mutti.m labhissanti.
wise men and / wise women and / with earnestness / Dhamma / having learnt / deliverance / will obtain
The wise men and women will learn the Dhamma with earnestness and obtain deliverance.
12. Pu~n~nakaarino brahmacaariihi saddhi.m vasitu.m icchanti.
well-doers / with celibates / to live / wish
The well-doers wish to live with the celibates.
13. Naariyo mahesi.m passitu.m nagara.m agami.msu.
women / queen / to see / [to] city / went
The women went to the city to see the queen.
14. Bhikkhuniyo gahapataaniina.m ovaada.m ada.msu.
nuns / to females householders / advice / gave
The nuns gave advice to the female householders.
15. "Appamaada~n ca medhaavii - dhana.m se.t.tha.m'va**** rakkhati."
and earnestness / wise man / wealth / like excellent / guards
"The wise man guards earnestness like an excellent treasure."
* carii can be translated literally as "one who goes" or as "one who lives by...". Dhammacarii = one who lives by Dharma, or more briefly,
** Niggahita (.m) when followed by a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group,
e.g. sa.m + gaho = sa`ngaho
sa.m + .thaana = sa.n.thaana
aha.m + pi = aham'pi
aha.m + ca = aha~n ca
ta.m + dhana.m + tandhana.m
*** Question has been modified from the original.
**** se.t.tha.m + iva
Exercise 10-B: Translate into Pali.
1. Those who act righteously will not do evil and be born in evil states.
dhammacaarii / akatvaa / paapa.m / na jaayissanti / duggatiisu
Dhammacaarii paapa.m akatvaa duggatiisu na jaayissanti.
2. The well-doers will obtain their deliverance.
pu~n~nakaarii / labhissanti / tesa.m* / mutti.m
Pu~n~nakaarii (tesa.m) mutti.m labhissanti.
3. My husband mounted the elephant and fell on the ground.
mayha.m / saamii / aaruhitvaa / hatthi.m / pati / bhuumiya.m
Mayha.m saamii hatthi.m aaruhitvaa bhuumiya.m pati.
4. She went to school with her sister.
saa / agami / paa.thasaala.m / tassaa* / bhaginiyaa saddhi.m
Saa (tassaa) bhaginiyaa saddhi.m paa.thasaala.m agami.
Alt: Saa sabhaginii paa.thasaala.m agami.**
5. The queen's mother is certainly a wise lady.
mahesiyaa / jananii / hoti / have / medhaavinii
Mahesiyaa jananii have medhaavinii hoti.
6. Boys and girls are studying with diligence to get presents from their
mothers and fathers.
daarakaa ca / daarikaayo ca / ugga.nhanti / appamaadena /
labhitu.m / pa.n.naakaare / tesa.m* / jananiihi ca / janakehi ca
Daarakaa ca daarikaayo ca (tesa.m) jananiihi ca janakehi ca pa.n.naakaare
labhitu.m appamaadena ugga.nhanti.
7. Men and women go with flowers in their hands to the temple everyday.
naraa ca / naariyo ca / gacchanti / pupphehi / tesa.m* /
hatthesu / aaraama.m / sabbadaa
Naraa ca naariyo ca tesa.m* hatthesu pupphehi sabbadaa aaraama.m gacchanti.
Alt: Naraa ca naariyo ca pupphahatthaa*** sabbadaa aaraama.m gacchanti.
8. My sister is protecting her mother as an excellent treasure.
mayha.m / bhaginii / rakkhati / tassaa* / janani.m / iva /
se.t.tha.m / dhana.m
Mayha.m bhaginii settha.m dhana.m'va (tassaa) janani.m rakkhati.
9. Mother, I shall go to see my uncle and aunt tomorrow.
janani / aha.m / gamissaami / passitu.m / mayha.m /
maatula.m ca / maatulaani.m ca / suve
Janani, aha.m suve (mayha.m) maatula.m ca maatulaani.m ca passitu.m gamissaami.
10. Amongst celibates**** there are wise men.
brahmacaariisu / honti / medhaavino
Medhaavino brahmacaariisu honti.
11. Having seen the elephant, the she-goats ran away through fear.
disvaa / hatthi.m / ajaayo / dhaavi.msu / bhayena
Hatthi.m disvaa ajaayo bhayena dhaavi.msu/palaayi.msu.
12. The king, accompanied by***** the queen, arrived in the city yesterday.
raajaa / raajiniyaa saddhi.m / paapu.ni / nagara.m / hiiyo
Raajaa****** raajiniyaa saddhi.m hiiyo nagara.m paapu.ni.
Alt: Narapati mahesiyaa saddhi.m hiiyo nagara.m paapu.ni.
* The possessive pronouns may be omitted from the Pali sentences when
referring to "one's own".
** Please refer to
Rett's writing in the archive: 
*** pupphahatthaa = flower-handed.
**** Use the locative.
***** Use 'saddhi.m'.
****** Declined from rajan.