An Elementary Pali Course Lesson XIII
Exercise 13-A: Translate into English.
1. Ko naama tva.m?
who / by name / you
Who (are) you?
Alt: What is your name?
2. Ko naama eso?
who / by name / he
Who (is) he?
Alt: What is his name?
3. Ko naama te aacariyo?
who / by name / your / teacher
Who (is) your teacher?
Alt: What is the name of your teacher?
4. Idaani eso ki.m karissati?
now / he / what / will do
What will he do now?
5. Ki.m tva.m eta.m pucchasi?
what / you / him / ask
What do you ask him?
5. Ki.m tva.m eta.m pucchasi?
why* / you / this / ask
Why do you ask this?
6. Esaa naarii te ki.m hoti?
that / woman / to you / what / is
What is that woman to you?
7. Sve, kim'ete karissanti?
tomorrow / what / they / will do
What will they do tomorrow?
8. Kassa bhikkhussa ta.m potthaka.m pesessaama?
to who / to monk / that / book / (we) will send
To which monk will we send that book?
9. Tesa.m dhanena me ki.m payojana.m?
their / with wealth / to me / what use
What is the use of their wealth to me?**
10. "Ko jaanaati ki.m eso karissatii'ti?"
who / knows / what / he / will do
"Who knows what he will do?"
11. Kissa phala.m naama eta.m?
of which / fruit / by name / that
Of which fruit is that?
12. Kaaya.m disaaya.m tassaa jananii idaani vasati?
in which / quarter / her / mother / now / lives
In which quarter does her mother live now?
13. Kassa dhamma.m sotu.m ete icchanti?
whose / doctrine / to hear / they / wish
Whose doctrine do they wish to hear?
14. "Yo Dhamma.m passati so Buddha.m passati,
yo Buddha.m passati so Dhamma.m passati."
who / Dhamma / sees / he / Buddha / sees
who / Buddha / sees / he / Dhamma / sees
"He who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha,
he who sees the Buddha sees the Dhamma."
15. Ya.m tva.m icchasi ta.m etassa aarocehi.
what / you / wish / it / to him / tell
What you wish, tell it to him.
Alt: Tell him what you wish.
16. Ya.m te karonti tam*** eva gahetvaa para.m loka.m gacchanti.
what / they / do / it (that) / just / having taken /
[to] the other world / go
Whatever they do, that alone they take and go to the
17. Yassa.m disaaya.m so vasati tassa.m disaaya.m ete'pi
in which quarter / he / lives / in that quarter / they-too /
to live / wish
In whichever quarter he lives, they wish to live in that
18. Eso naro eka.m vadati, esaa naarii añña.m vadati.
that / man / one / speaks / that / woman / another /
That man says one [thing], that woman says another.
19. Paresa.m bha.n.daani maya.m na ga.nhaama.
others' / goods / we / do not take
We do not take other [people]'s goods.
20. Etaani phalaani maa tassa saku.nassa detha.
these fruits / do not / to that / to bird / give!
Do not give these fruits to that bird.
Alt: Do not give these fruits to his bird.
21. Idaani sabbe'pi te Bhikkhuu uttaraaya disaaya aññatarasmi.m
now / all-too / those / monks / of northern direction /
in a certain temple / live
All of those monks live in a certain temple in the northern
22. Etasmi.m nagare sabbe naraa apara.m nagara.m agami.msu.
in that city / all / men / [to] other city / went
All the men in that city went to the other city.
23. Kiñci'pi kaatu.m so na jaanaati.
anything / to do / he / does not know
He does not know to do anything.
24. Katama.m disa.m tumhe gantu.m iccheyyaatha —
puratthima.m vaa dakkhi.na.m vaa pacchima.m vaa
which of many / direction / you / to go / wish /
east or / south or / west or / north or
Which direction do you wish to go —
east, south, west or north?
25. Kataraaya disaaya tva.m suriya.m passasi —
pubbaaya.m vaa aparaaya.m vaa?
to which of two / to direction / you / sun / see /
in eastern or / in western or
To which of the two directions do you see the sun —
eastern or western?
* 'Ki.m' can be 'why' when used adverbially. In these situations, 'ki.m' is
indeclinable, i.e. no change across cases, genders and numbers.
** See also Ex.13B-12.
*** When a niggahita (.m) is followed by a vowel, it is sometimes changed into
'm'. See note in Exercise 10-A.
Exercise 13-B: Translate into Pali.
1. Who is she?
kaa / (hoti) / esaa
2. What is his name?
ki.m / (hoti) / tassa / naama.m
Ki.m tassa naama.m?
Alt: Ko naama eso?
3. In which direction did he go?
katamaaya / disaaya / so / agami
Katamaaya disaaya so agami?
Alt: Kaaya disaaya so agami?
4. Is he a relative of yours?
nanu / eso / ñaati / tava
Nanu eso tava ñaati?
5. What is the name of that fruit?
ki.m / (hoti) / naama.m / etassa / phalassa
Ki.m etassa phalassa naama.m?
Alt: Ki.m naama etassa phalassa?
6. From whom did you buy those books?
kasmaa / tva.m / aki.no / etaani / potthakaani
Kasmaa tva.m etaani potthakaani aki.no?
7. With whom shall we go today?
kaaya / maya.m / gaccheyyaama / ajja
Kaaya maya.m ajja gaccheyyaama?
8. In whose garden are those boys and girls playing?
kassa / aaraame / ete / daarakaa ca / daarikaayo ca /
Kassa aaraame ete daarakaa ca daarikaayo ca kii.lanti?
9. In which direction do you see the sun in the morning?
katamaaya.m / disaaya.m / tva.m / passasi / suriya.m / paato
Katamaaya.m disaaya.m tva.m paato suriya.m passasi?
Alt: Kaaya.m disaaya.m tva.m paato suriya.m passasi?
10. Of what use is that to him or to her?
ki.m / payojana.m / etena* / tassa vaa / tissaa vaa
Etena tassa vaa tissaa vaa ki.m payojana.m?
11. To whom did he give those presents?
kissa / so / adaasi / te / pa.n.naakaare
Kissa so te pa.n.naakaare adaasi?
12. What is the use of your wealth, millionaire?
ki.m / payojana.m / tava / dhanena* / se.t.thi
Se.t.thi, tava dhanena ki.m payojana.m?
You are not going to take all that with you to the other
tva.m / na gacchasi / gahetvaa / sabba.m / (te saddhi.m) /
para.m / loka.m
Tva.m (ta.m) sabba.m gahetvaa para.m loka.m na gacchasi.
Therefore**, eat well.
tasmaa / bhuñjaahi / su.t.thu
Tasmaa, su.t.thu bhuñjaahi.
Have no attachment to your wealth.
maa karohi / rati.m / tava / dhanassa
Tava dhanassa rati.m maa karohi.
Grief results thereby***.
soko / jaayati / tena
Tena soko jaayati.
Do merit with that wealth of yours.
karohi / puñña.m / (etena) / dhanena / tava
Tava dhanena puñña.m karohi.
Erect hospitals for the sick, schools for children,
temples for monks and nuns.
karohi / gilaanasaalaayo ca / gilaanaana.m /
paa.thasaalaayo ca / daarakaana.m /
aaraame ca / bhikkhuuna.m ca / bhikkhuniina.m ca
Gilaanasaalaayo ca gilaanaana.m paa.thasaalaayo ca daarakaana.m
aaraame ca bhikkhuuna.m ca bhikkhuniina.m ca karohi.
It is those good actions you take with you when you
go to the other world.
taani taani**** / puññaani / (tva.m) / gahetvaa /
(te saddhi.m) / yadaa…tadaa / tva.m / gacchasi / para.m / loka.m
Yadaa tva.m para.m loka.m gacchasi tadaa taani taani
puññaani gahetvaa gacchasi.
13. Those who do good deeds are sure to be born in good states.
puññakaarino / have / jaayissanti / sugatiisu
Puññakaarino have sugatiisu jaayissanti.
14. Let him say what he likes.
ta.m / vadatu / ya.m / so / icchasi
Ya.m icchasi so ta.m vadatu.
15. We did not write all those letters.
maya.m / na likhimhaa / sabbaani / taani / lekhanaani
Maya.m sabbaani taani lekhanaani na likhimhaa.
16. You should not tell others all that you see with your eyes.
(tva.m) / maa vadeyyaasi / aññesa.m / sabba.m / ya.m / (tva.m)
/ passasi / tava / cakkhuuhi
Ya.m tava cakkhuuhi passasi sabba.m aññesa.m maa vadeyyaasi.
17. We like to live in cities in which wise men live.
maya.m / icchaama / vasitu.m / nagaresu / yesu /
pa.n.ditaa / vasanti
Yesu nagaresu pa.n.ditaa vasanti (tesu) maya.m vasitu.m icchaama.
* Instrumental case.
** Use 'tasmaa'.
*** Use 'tena'.
**** Taani taani = all; whatever (See PED ta: distributive and iterative).