bhikkhave is the plural vocative form of bhikkhu - monks.
(1) DN2 Sama~n~naphala Sutta CSCD253/PTS1.86
Khata-aya.m, bhikkhave, raajaa, upahata-aya.m, bhikkhave, raajaa.
ruined-this / O monks / king / destroyed-this / O monks /
*Ruined (was) this king, monks, devastated (was) this king, monks.
khata (p.p. of khanati) ruined, dug up, uprooted.
upahata (p.p. of upahanati) injured, spoilt, destroyed.
aya.m pron. this.
*The Buddha said so because King Ajatasattu put his father to death
(mentioned in the following sentence of the sutta), which caused him not to see
the eye of truth.
(2) DN22 Mahasatipatthana Sutta CSCD374/PTS2.291
Katha~nca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kaaye kaayaanupassii viharati?
and how / O monks / monk / on body / one who contemplates the body / maintains
And, O monks, how (does) a monk who contemplates the body maintains (contemplating) on the body?
katha.m adv. how.
pana ind. see PED.
kaaye - loc. body.
kaayaanupassii = kaaya (body) + anupassii (one who contemplates with awareness and understanding).
viharati - [Vibhanga Ch.12 para.540] dwells: assumes the four postures, exists, protects, keeps going, maintains, turns about, dwells
(3) DN22 Mahasatipatthana Sutta CSCD374/PTS2.291
Evam pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kaaye kaayaanupassii viharati.
in this way / O monks / monk / on body / one who contemplates the body / maintains
In this way, O monks, a monk who contemplates the body maintains (contemplating) on the body.
evam pi - just so.
evam pi kho - in this way.
(4) DN22 Mahasatipatthana Sutta CSCD393/PTS2.306
Katama~nca, bhikkhave, dukkha.m?
and what / O monks / dissatisfaction
And what, O monks, (is) dissatisfaction?
katama adj. what
Visuddhimagga (Ch XVI, 13 ff) provides the different meanings of dukkha:
1. dukkha-dukkha, intrinsic dukkha, painful feeling and unpleasant (mental) feeling, and this is the more obvious suffering.
2. Parinaama dukkha, the changeability of things; when what is pleasant changes one suffers.
3. Finally, sa.nkhaara dukkha, the impermanence of all conditioned realities (sa.nkhaara dhammas) which are therefore unsatisfactory.
The word dukkha can take various English translation subjecting to the
context of the passage. 'Dissatisfaction' conveys subjective nuances, whereas 'unsatisfactoriness'
conveys objective ones. Other possibilities are suffering, pain, distress, discomfort and
Word List 1:
01. ca | na
| ti | pe
| vaa | kho
| bhikkhave | hoti
| dhammo | so
11. uppajjati | paccayo
| tattha | pa.ticca |
ta.m | dhammaa |
dhamma.m | te |
eva.m | pana
21. tassa | no |
eka.m | bhikkhu |
tii.ni | tesa.m |
me | bhagavaa |
31. aya.m | atha |
tena | ya.m |
hetupaccayaa | nava | atthi | yo | ye |
41. bhikkhuu | aamantaa | citta.m | khandhaa | yassa | ruupa.m | pańca |
viharati | aavuso | vuccati