This word is an adversative & interrogative particle, sometimes merely
connecting and continuing the story.
1. (adversative) but, on the contrary.
(a) ca pana - but
(b) atha ca pana - and yet
(c) na kho pana - certainly not
(d) vaa pana - or else
2. (interrogative) then, now.
3. (conclusive or copulative) and, and now, further, moreover.
DN22 Mahasatipatthana Sutta CSCD374/PTS2.290
Kathańca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kaaye kaayaanupassii viharati?
and how / then / O monks / monk / on body / one who contemplates the body
And then, monks, how (does) a monk who contemplates the body maintains
(contemplating) on the body?
- kathańca = katha.m+ca : and how?
- bhikkhu (m.) monk.
- kaaya (m.) body.
- anupassati (v.) looks at, contemplates, observes.
- kaaya+anupassii = kaaya (body) + anupassii (one who contemplates with awareness and
- viharati (v.) dwells, maintains.
PTS: And how does a monk remain focused on the body in and of itself?
Piya: And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating the body as body?
Information provided by Nina:
He dwells contemplating the body in the body. [Co transl by Ven Soma]
<Why is the word "body" used twice in the phrase
"contemplating the body in the body"? For determining the object and
isolating it, and for the sifting out thoroughly [vinibbhoga] of the apparently
compact [gha.na] nature of things, like continuity [santati]... Because there is
no contemplating of feelings, consciousness or mental objects in the body...>
Nina: Thus the first reason is: body is contemplated, the first section of the
four applications of mindfulness. Then the second reason:
<In the body there is no contemplation of a uniform things, apart from the
big and small members of the body, or of a man, or of a woman, apart from such
things like the hair of the head and the hair of the body. There can be nothing
apart from the qualities of primary and derived materiality [the four great
elements and the derived ruupas. N], in a body...>
DN2 Samańńaphala Sutta CSCD237/PTS1.77
Seyyathaa vaa pana, mahaaraaja, puriso asi.m kosiyaa pavaaheyya.
just as / or / and / great king / man / sword / from sheath / if...remove
And, great king, just as if a man remove a sword from its sheath.
- seyyathaa (ind.) as, just like.
- vaa (ind., enclitic) or, either.
- mahaaraaja (m.) great king.
- puriso (m.) person; man.
- asi (m.) sword.
- kosiyaa (abl. of kosii, f.) from the sheath.
- pavaaheyya (optative mood of pavaaheti) if he remove.
P.S. PTS edition has 'Seyyathaa' as 'Seyyathaapi'.
Word List 1:
01. ca | na
| ti | pe
| vaa | kho
| bhikkhave | hoti
| dhammo | so
11. uppajjati | paccayo
| tattha | pa.ticca |
ta.m | dhammaa |
dhamma.m | te |
eva.m | pana
21. tassa | no |
eka.m | bhikkhu |
tii.ni | tesa.m |
me | bhagavaa |
31. aya.m | atha |
tena | ya.m |
hetupaccayaa | nava | atthi | yo | ye |
41. bhikkhuu | aamantaa | citta.m | khandhaa | yassa | ruupa.m | pańca |
viharati | aavuso | vuccati