Study and Research Section

Commentary on the Mahaaraahulovaadasutta

Conclusion

The Explanation of the Anapanasati Sutta

The Commentary to the Mahaaraahulovaadasutta refers to the Visuddhimagga that comments on the Anapanasati sutta. The Visuddhimagga, in its explanation of the Anapanasati sutta, divides it into four tetrads, four groups of four. We read as to the first tetrad (in the translation of Ven. Nyanamoli, VII, 146):

(I) Breathing in long, he knows "I breathe in long"; or breathing out long, he knows "I breathe out long".
(II) Breathing in short, he knows "I breathe in short"; or breathing out short, he knows "I breathe out short".
(III) He trains thus "I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body"; he trains thus "I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body".
(IV) He trains thus "I shall breathe in tranquillizing the bodily activity"; he trains thus "I shall breathe out tranquillizing the bodily activity", at that time, monks, the monk is faring along contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it) having put away the covetousness and dejection in the world. I say, monks, that of bodies, this is (a certain) one, that is to say breathing-in and breathing-out. That is why, on that occasion, monks, the monk is faring along contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly conscious (of it), mindful (of it) having put away the covetousness and dejection in the world.

In the word commentary to the above quoted sutta the Visuddhimagga (VIII, 223-226) mentions with regard to the first tetrad (group of four clauses, marked I-IV) of the sutta the different stages of insight-knowledge which are developed after emerging from jhaana. We read:

<On emerging from the attainment he sees that the in-breaths and out-breaths have the physical body and the mind as their origin; and that just as, when a blacksmith's bellows are being blown, the wind moves owing to the bag and to the man's appropriate effort, so too, in-breaths and out-breaths are due to the body and the mind.
Next he defines the in-breaths and out-breaths and the body as materiality, and the consciousness and the states associated with the consciousness as the immaterial...
Having defined nama-rupa in this way, he seeks its condition...>

The Visuddhimagga then mentions all the different stages of insight (Visuddhimagga VIII, 223 -225). We then read:

<After he has thus reached the four noble paths in due succession and has become established in the fruition of arahatship, he at last attains to the nineteen kinds of "Reviewing Knowledge", and he becomes fit to receive the highest gifts from the world with its deities.>

In the Papancasudani, the Co to the Anapanasati sutta, there is more explanation on rupas which should be objects of awareness after the meditator has emerged from jhana.

As we read at the end of the first tetrad, <I say, monks, that of bodies, this is one, that is to say breathing-in and breathing-out...> The Commentary explains, this is a certain body, kaaya~n~natara: <We speak of a certain body among the four bodies beginning with the Earth body (N: the four Great Elements of Earth or solidity, Water or cohesion, Fire or temperature and Wind or motion). We say that breath is a body. Further, the twenty five classes of rupa, namely, the sense-base of visible object (ruupaayatana).... nutriment, are called the physical body, ruupakaaya (N: different from the mental body). Of these, breathing is "a certain body" because it is included in tangible object base (pho.t.tabbaayatana). "That is why": because he contemplates the body of wind (vaayokaaya, motion or pressure) among the four bodies (N: the four Great Elements), or he sees breath as one body among the twenty five rupas which are the physical body, ruupakaaya. Therefore he contemplates and sees the body in the body, is the meaning.>

N: Breath is rupa, and it can be understood as such when it appears through the body-sense, at the nose-tip or upper-lip. It can appear as solidity or motion or temperature. It can be known as only rupa, not my breath, as non-self.

Contemplating the Body in the Body: this is explained in the Commentary to Satipatthana Sutta (Middle length Sayings, I, 10, translated by Ven. Soma):

<Why is the word body used twice in the phrase: Contemplating the body in the body? For determining the object and isolating it, and for sifting out thoroughly of the apparent compact nature of things like continuity (santati). Because there is no contemplation of feeling, citta or dhammas in the body, but just the contemplating of the body only... In the body there is no contemplation of a uniform thing.. There can be nothing apart from the qualities of primary and derived materiality, in a body...the character of contemplating the collection of primary and derived materiality is comparable to the separation of the leaf-integument of a plaintain trunk or is like the opening of an empty fist. Therefore, by the pointing out of the basis called the body in the form of a collection, in many ways, the sifting out thoroughly of the apparently compact is shown.
In this body, apart from the above-mentioned collection, there is seen no body, man, woman or anything else...
This person contemplates in this body only the body; he does not contemplate anything else. What does this mean? In this definitely transient, suffering, soulless body, that is unlovely, he does not see permanence, pleasure, a soul, or beauty...>

As to the words: <having put away covetousness and grief in the world>, this Co explains that the world is the five khandhas. Covetousness stands for sense desire and grief stands for ill will, which are, as the Co states, the principal hindrances. We read:

<With covetousness are abandoned the satisfaction rooted in bodily happiness, delight in the body and the falling into erroneous opinion which takes as real the unreal beauty, pleasure, permanence and substantiality of the body. With the overcoming of grief are abandoned the discontent rooted in bodily misery, the non-delight in the culture of body-contemplation, and the desire to turn away from facing the real ugliness, suffering, impermanence and insubstantiality of the body...>

 

The Second Tetrad

We should go back to the second tetrad, group of four, of the sutta on Mindfulness of Breathing:

(V) He trains thus <I shall breathe in experiencing happiness>; he trains thus <I shall breathe out experiencing happiness>.
(VI) He trains thus <I shall breathe in experiencing bliss>; he trains thus <I shall breathe out experiencing bliss>.
(VII) He trains thus <I shall breathe in experiencing the mental formation>; he trains thus <I shall breathe out experiencing the mental formation>.
(VIII) He trains thus <I shall breathe in tranquillizing the mental formation>; he trains thus <I shall breathe out tranquillizing the mental formation. On that occasion, monks, a monk abides contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

I say that this, monks, is a certain feeling among the feelings, namely, the giving attention completely to in-breathing and out-breathing. That is why on that occasion, monks, a monk abides contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

As regards the second tetrad (marked V-VIII), the Visuddhimagga (VIII, 226) comments:

(V) He trains thus <I shall breathe in... shall breathe out experiencing happiness>, that is, making happiness (píti, also translated as rapture) known, making it plain. Herein, the happiness is experienced in two ways: (a) with the object, and (b) with non-confusion.

As regards <happiness experienced with the object>, the Visuddhimagga (VIII, 227) explains:

How is happiness experienced with the object? He attains the two jhaanas in which happiness (píti) is present. At the time when he has actually entered upon them the happiness is experienced with the object owing to the obtaining of the jhaana, because of the experiencing of the object.

After the jhaanacitta has fallen away pa~n~naa realizes the characteristic of piiti as it is: only a kind of naama, which is impermanent and not self. We read:

'How with non-confusion? When, after entering upon and emerging from one of the two jhaanas accompanied by piiti, he comprehends with insight that happiness associated with the jhaana as liable to destruction and fall, then at the actual time of insight the happiness is experienced with non-confusion owing to the penetration of its characteristics (of impermanence, and so on).

The Vis. quotes from the Path of Discrimination with regard to the experience of happiness with non-confusion:

<It is experienced by him when he adverts, when he knows, sees, reviews, steadies his mind, resolves with faith, exerts energy, establishes mindfulness, concentrates his mind, understands with understanding, directly knows what is to be directly-known, fully understands what is to be fully understood, abandons what is to be abandoned, realizes what is to be realized. it is in this way that that happiness is experienced (Ps. I, 187)>

In a similar way the words of the second tetrad are explained by the Visuddhimagga: (VI) I shall breathe in 'breathe out experiencing bliss (sukha, pleasant feeling)'

Sukha occurs in three stages of jhaana (of the fourfold system); it does not arise in the highest stage of jhaana where there is equanimity instead of sukha. Sukha accompanies the jhaanacitta of the three stages of jhaana and is, after the jhaanacitta has fallen away, realized by pa~n~naa as impermanent.

The realization of the characteristic of impermanence can only occur when the stages of insight knowledge have been developed, beginning with tender insight, as I said before. Thus both jhana and insight have been developed here. As to VI amd VII, experiencing mental formation, citta sankhara, and tranquillizing mental formation: the Vis. VIII, 229, explains that mental formation pertains here to feeling and perception, sanna. The feeling is associated with perception (Vis. VIII, 230). The Vis. quotes here from the Path of Discrimination: <perception and feeling being cetasikas... , these things are bound up with citta and are mind functions.>

The Vis. adds that this tetrad deals with the contemplation of feeling.

The Co, the Papa~ncasuudanii, speaks about a <certain feeling>, vedanaa~n~nantara.m. <This is said with reference to pleasant feeling as a certain one among the three feelings.>

As to the words of the sutta, "The giving attention completely", the Co explains that attention is not pleasant feeling but it comes under the heading of feeling. The Co repeats what has been stated in the Vis. about experiencing rapture and pleasant feeling with the object and with non-delusion. The Co then states:

<How by non-delusion? Having entered into the two jhanas in which rapture is present, and emerged therefrom, he masters rapture associated with jhana (by contemplating it) as destructable and perishable. By his penetration of its characteristics at the moment of insight, rapture is experienced by him with non-delusion. For this is said in the Path of Discrimination:" For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in long, mindfulness is established. By means of that mindfulness and that insight that rapture is experienced by non-delusion, because the three characteristics are realized.>

The Commentary explains that in the same way bliss and citta sankhara, the mental formation, are experienced and that it is thus rightly stated that the monk contemplates feelings in the feelings.

The Commentary to the Satipatthana sutta states that contemplating feelings in the feelings should be seen in the same way as contemplating the body in the body: thus, in order to limit the object and "sifting it out". We read: <How should feeling be contemplated upon? it is asked further. Pleasurable feeling because it is the stuff of suffering, as suffering. Painful feeling because it is the condition of bringing out trouble, etc., as a thorn. And the neither pleasurable nor painful feeling, because of non-mastery or dependence and so forth, as transiency.>

 

The Third Tetrad of the Anapanasatisutta

(IX) He trains thus "I shall breathe in experiencing the (manner of) consciousness"; he trains thus "I shall breathe out experiencing the (manner of) consciousness".
(X) He trains thus "I shall breathe in gladdening the (manner of) consciousness"; he trains thus "I shall breathe out gladdening the (manner of) consciousness".
(XI) He trains thus "I shall breathe in concentrating the (manner of) consciousness"; he trains thus "I shall breathe out concentrating the (manner of) consciousness".
(XII) He trains thus "I shall breathe in liberating the (manner of) consciousness"; he trains thus "I shall breathe out liberating the (manner of) consciousness"- on that occasion, monks, a monk abides contemplating citta in citta, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.
I do not say, monks, that there is mindfulness of breathing in one who is forgetful and does not clearly comprehend. That is why on that occasion, monks, a monk abides contemplating citta in citta, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

The Visuddhimagga states:
IX: In the third tetrad the experiencing of the (manner of) consciousness must be understood to be through four jhanas.


As regards the words in the third tetrad: "(X) I shall breathe in...breathe out gladdening the (manner of) consciousness", the Visuddhimagga (VIII, 231) states that there is gladdening in two ways, namely through concentration and through insight. We read:

'How through concentration? He attains the two jhaanas in which happiness (piti) is present. At the time when he has actually entered upon them he inspires the mind with gladness, instils gladness into it, by means of the happiness associated with the jhaana. How through insight? After entering upon and emerging from one of the two jhaanas accompanied by happiness he comprehends with insight that happiness associated with the jhaana as liable to destruction and to fall, thus at the actual time of insight he inspires the mind with gladness, instils gladness into it by making the happiness associated with jhaana the object.'

XI: Concentrating (samaadaha.m) the (manner of) consciousness:"evenly (samam) placing (adahanto) the mind, evenly putting it on its object by means of the first jhana and so on. Or alternatively when, having entered upon those jhanas and emerged from them, he comprehends with insight the consciousness associated with the jhana as liable to destruction and fall, then at the actual time of insight momentary unification of the mind arises through the penetration of the characteristics...

When the yogavacara, the practitioner, concentrates on the meditation subject, in this case, breath, he needs right understanding and also samadhi that concentrates again and again and again, so that it can become access concentration and attainment concentration when he attains jhana. When he can have jhanacitta for many moments, there are no cittas of the sense sphere and no bhavangacittas in between. His concentration on the meditation subject is stable. The word evenly applies to jhana, when there is no disturbance by sense impressions. When he emerges from jhana and he can develop insight, there is momentray concentration with the citta that realizes the happiness of jhana as a dhamma arising and falling away. The Visuddhinmagga speaks about <momentary unification of the mind>.

The Vis. I, note 3 explains that no insight comes about without momentary concentration.

As regards the clause: "(XII) I shall breathe in... breathe out liberating the (manner of) consciousness", the Visuddhimagga explains that this also must be understood as pertaining to jhaana as well as to insight. In the first jhaana one is liberated from the "hindrances", although they are not eradicated, and in each subsequent stage of jhaana one is liberated from the jhaana-factors, specific cetasikas which are developed in order to eliminate the hindrances. The jhaana-factors are subsequently abandoned when one is no longer dependent on them and one is able to attain a higher and more subtle stage of jhaana. After emerging from jhaana the jhaanacitta is comprehended with insight.

We read (Visuddhimagga VIII, 233):

'... at the actual time of insight he delivers, liberates the mind from the perception of permanence by means of the contemplation of impermanence, from the perception of pleasure by means of the contemplation of dukkha (suffering), from the perception of self by means of the contemplation of not self, from delight by means of the contemplation of dispassion, from greed by means of the contemplation of fading away, from arousing by means of the contemplation of cessation, from grasping by means of the contemplation of relinquishment..."

As to the words, <by means of the contemplation of cessation>, we read in a footnote (Vis. VIII, 234, note 64): <by means of the successive seeing of formations' cessation. Or contemplation of cessation is contemplation such that formations cease only and do not arise with future renewal. For this is Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance grown strong...>

Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance is one of the higher stages of insight knowledge (the sixth maha-vipassana ~naa.na), when panna has become more and more detached from conditioned realities, sees their danger and disadvantage.

At the end of this tetrad, the Vis. states that this tetrad deals with contemplation of citta.

The Commentary to the sutta, the Papa~ncasuudanii, explains the words of the sutta:

<One who is forgetful and does not clearly comprehend>, here this is the explanation: a monk who proceeds by the method, <Experiencing citta, I shall breathe in,> etc... although he makes the sign(nimitta) of the in-and-outbreathing the object, is nevertheless called someone who contemplates citta in citta, because the citta of that monk proceeds by establishing sati and sampaja~n~na (pa~n~naa) with regard to the object. Because there cannot be the development of mindfulness of breathing for someone who is forgetful and without clear comprehension. That is why, by experiencing the citta as object,(it is said) <on that occasion... a monk dwells contemplating citta in citta>

The Commentary on the Satipatthana Sutta (the Papa~ncasuudanii, translated by Ven. Soma) states that just as in the case of body and feelings, citta should be contemplated in seven ways: as impermanent; as being subject to dukkha; as anatta; by way of turning away from it and not by way of delighting in it; by freeing himself of passion for it; with thoughts making for cessation and not making for origination; and not by way of laying hold of it, by by way of giving it up.

Nina: these contemplations refer to the stages of insight: in the course of insight there is a clearer understanding of the three characteristics of impermanence, dukkha and anatta, and hence there is a growing detachment from conditioned dhammas. When citta appears panna should see citta in citta, not a self in citta. Citta knows an object, it does not last and it is not self who knows an object.

 

The Fourth Tetrad, dealing with the Contemplation on Dhammas, Mental Objects

We read in the Commentary to the Anapanasati Sutta (translated by Ven. Nyanatiloka) about the explanations of the words of the sutta:

<Having seen with understanding the abandoning of covetousness and grief, he becomes one who looks on with complete equanimity>: here covetousness is the hindrance of lust. By grief the hindrance of ill will is pointed out. For this tetrad is stated by way of insight. And contemplation of mental objects is sixfold... Of that contemplation, the section on the hindrances is the beginning... Accordingly, he said, <covetousness and grief> in order to point out the beginning of the contemplation of mental objects. <The abandoning> (pahaana.m) means it is the knowledge of abandoning, thus, <he abandons the perception of permanence through the contemplation of impermanence> that is intended...

N: The Co refers to higher stages of insight knowledge leading to more detachment from conditioned realities: fading away (viraaga~naa.na), cessation (nirodha ~naa.na), and relinquishment (pa.tinissagga). We read further on:

<That is why... bhikkhus>: because one who proceeds by the method, <contemplating impermanence, I shall breathe in,>etc., is one who looks on with complete equanimity after successively seeing with understanding not only the mental objects beginning with the hindrances, but also the knowledge of the abandoning of the mental objects stated under the heading of covetousness and grief. Therefore, it should be understood that <on that occasion... a bhikkhu abides contemplating mental objects in the mental objects.>

Nina: In the Way of Mindfulness, Co translated by Ven. Soma, it is stated that just as in the case of body, feeling and citta, the mental objects should be contemplated in seven ways: as impermanent; as being subject to dukkha; as anatta; by way of turning away from it and not by way of delighting in it; by freeing himself of passion for it; with thoughts making for cessation and not making for origination; and not by way of laying hold of it, by by way of giving it up.

As we have seen, the hindrances are classified under the mental objects, and they include also the khandhas, the sense-bases (ayatanas), the seven factors of enlightenment and the four Truths.

We read about the benefits of Anapanasati in the Visuddhimagga. We read Vis. VIII, 239: <Also its great beneficialness should be understood as the root condition for the perfecting of clear vision and deliverance for this has been said by the Blessed One: 'Bhikkhus, mindfulness of breathing, when developed and much practised, perfects the four foundations of mindfulness. The four foundations of mindfulness, when developed and much practised, perfect the seven enlightenment factors. The seven enlightenment factors, when developed and much practised, perfect clear vision and deliverance' (M.III, 82).>


The Enlightenment Factors

We read in the Anapanasati Sutta, (in the translation by Ven. Nyanatiloka, but abridged):

<1. On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world- on that occasion, unremitting mindfulness is established in him...on that occasion the mindfulness enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.
2. Abiding thus mindful, he investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it)... on that occasion the investigation-of-states (dhamma vivaya) enlightenment is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him...
3. On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who investigates, examines that state (dhamma) with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it), tireless energy is aroused... on that occasion the energy enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him...
4. On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has aroused energy, unworldly (niramisa, not involved with the senses) rapture arises... 
"The body and mind of one whose mind is held in rapture, becomes tranquillized."
5. On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, the body and mind of a bhikkhu who is held in rapture, become tranquillized- on that occasion the tranquillity enlightenment factor is aroused in him...
"The mind of one who is tranquillized in body and blissful becomes concentrated."
6. On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, mind of a bhikkhu who is tranquillized in body and blissful becomes concentrated- on that occasion the concentration enlightenment factor is aroused in him...
"He becomes one who looks on with complete equanimity on the mind thus concentrated."
7. On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu becomes one who looks on with complete equanimity on the mind thus concentrated- on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.>

The same is stated with regard to the other three applications of mindfulness.

<Thus developed, bhikkhus, thuse repeatedly practised, do the four foundations of mindfulness fulfil the seven enlightenment factors>

The Co. to this sutta (Ven. Nyanatiloka): ...<The mindfulness in regard to the body, in the bhikkhu who lays hold of the body in the fourteen ways (of contemplating the body, given in the satipatthana sutta) thus, is mindfulness enlightenment factor; the knowledge associated with that is the investigation-of-states (dhammas) enlightenment factor; the bodily and mental energy associated with that is the energy enlightenment factor. (and so on in like manner with) rapture and tranquillity; one-pointedness is the concentration enlightenment factor; it is the quality of equipoise called absence of lagging behind or of overrunning on the part of the aforesaid six enlightenment factors, that constitutes the equanimity enlightenment factor ...>

The Co. then uses a simile of a charioteer and horses which are advancing evenly, not overrunning nor holding back. Evenso is equanimity. We then read:

<Up to this point what has been expounded? What are expounded are the seven enlightenment factors of the insight of a single conscious moment, characterized by various essentials (lakkhana). >

The enlightenment factors are included in the fourth Application of Mindfulness, contemplating dhammas in dhammas. They should not be taken for self. We read in the Co to the Satipatthana Sutta (tr. by ven. Soma) about the conditions for the enlightenment factors, and among them is <an abundance of right reflection>. We read about right reflection in the section on the hindrance of covetousness:

<Right reflection is expedient reflection; reflection going on the right track. It is reflection that considers the facts of impermanence, suffering (dukkha), soullessness and of impurity, according to reality.>

This is not merely thinking, it is deeply considering and contemplating with mindfulness of the object that appears and right understanding of its characteristic.

We read more about this kind of reflection in the <Kindred Sayings>, V, Mahaa-vagga, Kindred Sayings on the Limbs of Wisdom, Ch IV, § 8, Restraint and Hindrance. The enlightenment factors are translated here as Limbs of Wisdom. We read:

... At the time, monks, when the Ariyan disciple makes the Norm (Dhamma) his object, gives attention to it, with all his mind considers it, with ready ear listens to the Norm,- at such time the five hindrances exist not in him, at such time these seven limbs of wisdom by cultivation go to fulfilment.>

It all begins with listening, considering, and then there are conditions for mindfulness and direct understanding of whatever reality appears.

There should be equanimity, evenmindedness and impartiality towards the object that appears. No matter whether the object is greatly disturbing, it can be object of mindfulness. It is conditioned and it has no owner.

The enlightenment factors are most important and they should not be neglected. We read in the same section of the Kindred Sayings, Ch II, §8, neglected and undertaken:

<By whomsoever, monks, the seven limbs of wisdom are neglected, by them is neglected this Ariyan eightfold way for the utter destruction of Ill (dukkha).
By whomsoever, monks, the seven limbs of wisdom are undertaken, by them is undertaken this Ariyan eightfold way for the utter destruction of Ill (dukkha)... >


Perfection of Clear Vision (vijja) and Deliverance (vimutti)

We read in the anapanasati sutta (transl by ven. Nyanatiloka):

<And how developed, bhikkhus, how repeatedly practised, do the seven enlightenment factors perfect clear vision and deliverance?
Herein, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu develops the mindfulness enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment..>

The same is stated about the other enlightenment factors.

With regard to the word seclusion (viveka), which is seclusion from defilements, we read about the meaning in the Co to the "Root of Existence" (Mulapariyaya sutta, as tr. by Ven. Bodhi)that there are five kinds of seclusion, or abandoning: by substitution of opposite factors (tadanga pahana), by suppression (in jhana), by eradication (by the four paths), by tranquillization ( by the four fruitions) and by escape (nibbana). As regards abandoning by substitution of opposite factors (tadanga pahana), this occurs during the development of the stages of insight. The personality view is abandoned by the first stage of insight: defining nama and rupa, distinguishing their different characteristics, and by each of the higher stages there is abandoning by opposite factors.

As to the words of the sutta, fading away (viraga) and cessation (nirodha), these have the same meaning as seclusion, viveka.

As to the words, "resulting in relinquishment", as the Visuddhimagga VIII, 236) explained, this is relinquishment as giving up (of defilements) and as entering into nibbana. We read: <For insight is called both relinquishment as giving up and relinquishment as entering into, since through substitution of opposite qualities it gives up defilements with their aggregate-producing kamma-formations, and through seeing the wretchedness of what is formed (sankhara), it also enters into nibbana by inclining towards nibbana, which is the opposte of the formed (asankhata, unconditioned).> we read that also the path is called both relinquishment as giving up and relinquishment as entering into.

We read in the Co. to the Anapana Sati Sutta:

<But here the mindfulness which lays hold of breathing in and out is mundane (lokiya); mundane breathing in and out brings to fulfilment the mundane foundations of mindfulness; the mundane foundations of mindfulness bring to fulfilment the supramundane (lokuttara) enlightenment factors; the supramundane enlightenment factors bring to fulfilment nibbana as the fruit of clear vision and deliverance.>

The Co states that it is thus elsewhere (in other texts), "but in this sutta, as it is handed down, the supramundane is reached later." It states that mundane mindfulness of breathing brings to fulfilment the mundane foundations of mindfulness; the mundane foundations of mindfulness bring to fulfilment the mundane enlightenment factors, and that these bring to fulfilment supramundane nibbaana as the fruit of clear vision (vijjaa) and deliverance (vimutti). Because in this sutta by the term "clear vision and deliverance" it is nibbaana as the fruit of clear vision that is intended.

 

End of the Commentary to the Mahaaraahulovadasutta.

In this book

Introduction

Part 1:
Section a
Section b
Section c
Section d
Section e
Part 2:
Section a
Part 6:
Section a
Part 7:
Section a
Part 11:
Section a
Part 12:
Section a
Part 13:
Section a

Conclusion