Study and Research Section

Commentary on the Mahaaraahulovaadasutta

Part I : Section A

Relevant sutta passage: atha kho bhagavaa pubba.nhasamaya.m nivaasetvaa pattaciivaramaadaaya saavatthi.m pi.n.daaya paavisi. aayasmaapi kho raahulo pubba.nhasamaya.m nivaasetvaa pattaciivaramaadaaya bhagavanta.m pi.t.thito pi.t.thito anubandhi.

Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed and, taking his bowl and outer robe, entered Savatthi for alms. The venerable Rahula, too, dressed and, taking his bowl and outer robe, followed close behind the Blessed One.


1. Words:

  • pi.t.thi (f) back.
  • dassana.m: seeing.
  • anubandhati: to follow, pursue.
  • abbocchinna: uninterrupted.
  • vijahati: abandon (vijahita).
  • pacchato: from behind.
  • gamana (nt): journey, walking.
  • iriyaapatha (m): posture, deportment.
  • nikkhipati: lay down, put down.
  • vilasati: to shine, sport.
  • vilaasita: splendid.
  • padaanupadiko: close behind.
  • pada (n): foot, verse.
  • pade pada.m: step by step.

Commentary:
eva.m me sutanti mahaaraahulovaadasutta.m.
As to the words, thus have I heard, this is the Great Discourse to the venerable Rahula.

tattha pi.t.thito pi.t.thito anubandhiiti dassana.m avijahitvaa gamana.m abbocchinna.m katvaa
As to the words, there he followed closely behind, this means, without leaving him out of sight, and leaving no distance in between,

pacchato pacchato iriyaapathaanubandhanena anubandhi.
he followed behind in each manner of deportment.

tadaa hi bhagavaa pade pada.m nikkhipanto vilaasitagamanena * purato purato gacchati,
Then, the Exalted One, placing his feet, step by step, in a splendid manner, walked in front,

raahulatthero dasabalassa padaanupadiko hutvaa pacchato pacchato.
whereas the venerable Rahula followed close behind the "Person with the Ten Powers".

English:
As to the words, thus have I heard, this is the Great Discourse to the venerable Rahulo. As to the words, there he followed closely behind, this means, without leaving him out of sight, and leaving no distance in between, he followed behind in each manner of deportment. Then, the Exalted One putting his feet down, step by step, in a splendid manner, walked in front, whereas the venerable Rahulo followed close behind the "Person with the Ten Powers".

* The subcommentary explains: <vilaasitagamanenaati -- ``duure paada.m na uddharati, na accaasanne paada.m nikkhipati, naatisiigha.m gacchati naatisa.nika''ntiaadinaa as to the words a splendid way of walking: he did not lift his feet too high, nor too little, he did not go too fast nor too slowly.>


2: Words:

  • puppha (n): flower.
  • pupphita: with flowers.
  • saalavana (n): salgrove.
  • majjha: middle.
  • gaja (m): elephant.
  • gaja potaka: young elephant.
  • nikkhamati: to go out.
  • varo: excellent.
  • vara.na (m): elephant.
  • viroceti: illumine.
  • virocati: to shine (virocita).
  • otara.na (n): descent, coming down.
  • attha (m) : welfare, gain, need, meaning.
  • atthaaya: for the sake of.
  • bhuumi (f): earth, ground.
  • saayamha: early evening.
  • guhaa (f): cave.
  • ma.ni (m): gem.
  • siiha (m): lion.
  • kesara (n): mane.
  • kesarasiiho: maned lion.
  • pa.tipajjati: go along.
  • gocara (m): field.
  • miga (m): animal.
  • byaggha (m): tiger.
  • daa.tha (f): canine tooth.
  • saasiiriika: glorious, resplendent.
  • ma.nipabbata (m): mountain of gems.
  • vanasa.n.da (m): jungle thicket.

Commentary:
tattha bhagavaa supupphitasaalavanamajjhagato
Then the Exalted One went into the middle of a flowering Salgrove,

subhuumiotara.natthaaya nikkhantamattavaravaara.no viya virocittha,
splendid as a superb elephant that departs in order to descend to the battle field,

raahulabhaddo ca varavaara.nassa pacchato nikkhantagajapotako viya.
and Lucky Rahula was like the elephant young departing behind the superb elephant.

bhagavaa saayanhasamaye ma.niguhato nikkhamitvaa gocara.m pa.tipanno kesarasiiho viya,
The Exalted One was like a maned lion that departs towards evening from his jewelled cave and wanders about in his field,

raahulabhaddo ca siihamigaraajaana.m anubandhanto nikkhantasiihapotako viya.
and Lucky Rahula was like a lion's young that departs following the lion, the king of animals.

bhagavaa ma.nipabbatasassirikavanasa.n.dato daa.thabalo mahaabyaggho viya,
The Exalted One was like a great tiger with strong teeth, emerging from the splendid jungle thicket of the jewelled mountain,

raahulabhaddo ca byaggharaajaana.m anubandhabyagghapotako viya.
and Lucky Rahula was like the tiger's young following the king of tigers.

English:
Then the Exalted One went into the middle of a flowering Salgrove, splendid as a superb elephant that departs in order to descend to the battle field, and Lucky Rahula was like the elephant young departing behind the superb elephant. The Exalted One was like a maned lion that departs towards evening from his jewelled cave and wanders about in his field, and Lucky Rahula was like a lion's young that departs following the lion which is the king of animals. The Exalted One was like a majestic tiger with strong teeth, emerging from the splendid jungle thicket of the jewelled mountain, and Lucky Rahula was like the tiger's young following the king of tigers.


3. Words:

  • simbalii (m): silk-cotton tree.
  • supanna (m): Garuda bird.
  • daaya (m): forest grove.
  • kuu.ta (m. nt.): top, prominence.
  • ha.msa (m): swan.
  • gagana (nt): sky.
  • tala (n): flat surface, base.
  • pakkhandati: leap forward.
  • pati (m): husband, master.
  • naava (f): ship.
  • ajjhogaahati: plunge into, enter (p.p: ajjhogaa.lha).
  • sara (m): arrow, lake.
  • anubhavati: experience, partake in.
  • anubhaava: power.
  • cakkavattiraajaa (m): wheelturning monarch.
  • sampayaati: go on, proceed (p.p. sampayaata).
  • parinaayaka (m): guide, leader, advisor.
  • ratana (n): gem.
  • parinaayaka ratana : chief of army of the universal monarch.
  • valahaaka (m): rainy cloud.
  • vigata: without.
  • nabba (n): sky.
  • taara (f): star.
  • adhipati (m): lord, ruler.
  • osadhii: star of healing.

Commentary:
bhagavaa simbalidaayato nikkhantasupa.n.naraajaa viya,
The Exalted One was like a king of the Garuda birds, emerging from a forest grove of silk-cotton trees,

raahulabhaddo ca supa.n.naraajassa pacchatonikkhantasupa.n.napotako viya.
And Lucky Rahula was like the young of the king of the Garuda birds, departing after him.

bhagavaa cittakuu.tapabbatato gaganatala.m pakkhandasuva.n.naha.msaraajaa viya,
The Exalted One was like the golden king of the swans, leaping from Mount Cittakuu, gliding along the sky,

raahulabhaddo ca ha.msaadhipati.m anupakkhandaha.msapotako viya.
And Lucky Rahula was like a swan's young, following in its flight the ruler of the swans.

bhagavaa mahaasara.m ajjhogaa.lhaa suva.n.namahaanaavaa viya,
The Exalted One was like a golden vessel, that had entered a great lake,

raahulabhaddo ca suva.n.nanaava.m pacchaa anubandhanaavaapotako viya.
And Lucky Rahula was like a small boat following after the golden vessel.

bhagavaa cakkaratanaanubhaavena gaganatale sampayaatacakkavattiraajaa viya,
The Exalted One was like a wheelturning monarch, flying in the sky by the power of the Wheel Gem,

raahulabhaddo ca raajaana.m anusampayaatapari.naayakaratana.m viya.
And Lucky Rahula was like the chief of army of the universal monarch, proceeding after the universal monarch.

bhagavaa vigatavalaahaka.m nabha.m pa.tipannataarakaraajaa viya,
The Exalted One was like the ruler of the stars*, floating in a cloudless sky,

raahulabhaddo ca taarakaadhipatino anumaggapa.tipannaa parisuddhaosadhitaarakaa viya.
and Lucky Rahula was like the pure "star of healing", following the ruler of the stars in its course.

English:
The Exalted One was like a king of the Garuda birds, emerging from a forest grove of silk-cotton trees, And Lucky Rahula was like the young of the king of the Garuda birds, departing after it. The Exalted One was like the golden king of the swans, leaping from Mount Cittakuu, gliding along the sky, And Lucky Rahula was like a swan's young, following in its flight the ruler of the swans.

The Exalted One was like a golden vessel, that had entered a great lake, And Lucky Rahula was like a small boat following after the golden vessel. The Exalted One was like a wheelturning monarch, flying in the sky by the power of the Wheel Gem, And Lucky Rahula was like the chief of army of the universal monarch, proceeding after the universal monarch.

The Exalted One was like the ruler of the stars *, floating in a cloudless sky, and Lucky Rahula was like the pure "star of healing", following the ruler of the stars in its course.

* The Subcommentary explains: the ruler of the stars is the moon.


4: Words:

  • pave.nii (f): lineage, tradition.
  • va.msa (m): lineage, family.
  • sa"nkha (m): conch.
  • khiira (nt) : milk.
  • pakkhitta: thrown in, put in (pakkipati).
  • parisuddha: pure.
  • sadiso: equal.
  • rajja (nt): kingdom.
  • sariira (nt): body.
  • dvatti.msa: thirty-two.
  • mahaapurisalakkha.na: characteristics of a Great Man.
  • ma.n.deti: adorn, decorate.
  • torana.m: arched gateway.
  • samussita: elevated, raised.
  • samussaapeti: to raise.
  • paaricchattaka (m): coral tree.
  • phulla (phalati): full of blossoms.
  • paaliphulla: one mass of flowers.
  • manohara: charming, captivating.
  • abhiniihaara (m): aspiration, resolution.
  • khattiya: belonging to the warrior caste.
  • sukhumaala: delicate, refined.
  • khattiya sukhumaala: delicate like a royal prince.
  • pabbajati: to go forth (pabbajita pp).
  • ma.n.dala (nt): circle, crest.
  • viroceti: shine, illumine.
  • sirii (f): luck, glory, splendour.
  • abhibhavati: conquer.
  • pa.tipaati: order, succession.
  • pa.tipaatiyaa: successively, alongside of, in order.
  • pa.tipatti (f): conduct, practice.
  • pa.tipajjati: enter upon.

Commentary:
bhagavaapi mahaasammatapave.niya.m okkaakaraajava.mse jaato, raahulabhaddopi.
Both the Exalted One and Lucky Rahula were born into the royal dynasty of King Okkaka, descending from King Maha-Sammata.

bhagavaapi sa"nkhe pakkhittakhiirasadiso suparisuddhajaatikhattiyakule jaato, raahulabhaddopi.
Both the Exalted One and Lucky Rahula were born into the warrior clan, a superior family, pure like milk put into a conchshell.

bhagavaapi rajja.m pahaaya pabbajito, raahulabhaddopi.
Both the Exalted One and Lucky Rahula gave up the kingdom and entered monkhood.

bhagavatopi sariira.m dvatti.msamahaapurisalakkha.napa.tima.n.dita.m
The Exalted One's body was adorned with the thirty-two characteristics of a Great Man,

devanagaresu samussitaratanatora.na.m viya sabbapaaliphullo paaricchattako viya
and, being like a jeweled gateway elevated in the cities of divine beings, and like a blooming coral tree,

ca atimanohara.na.m, raahulabhaddassaapi.
both the Exalted One and Lucky Rahula were of striking beauty.

iti dvepi abhiniihaarasampannaa, dvepi raajapabbajitaa,
Thus, both of them were full of aspirations, both of them, being of royal birth, had gone forth.

dvepi khattiyasukhumaalaa, dvepi suva.n.nava.n.naa,
Both of them were delicate, being of royal family, both had a golden complexion.

dvepi lakkha.nasampannaa ekamagga.m pa.tipannaa pa.tipaa.tiyaa gacchantaana.m
Both of them, provided with distinguishing features, entered upon and walked along the same way.

dvinna.m candama.n.dalaana.m dvinna.m suuriyama.n.dalaana.m dvinna.m sakkasuyaamasantusitasunimmitavasavattimahaabrahmaadiina.m siriyaa siri.m abhibhavamaanaa viya viroci.msu.
Both of them were brilliant, and they were with their splendour as it were surpassing the glory of the crests of moon and sun, and of the divine Kings: Sakka, Suyama, Santusita, Nimitta Vasavatti, the Great Brahma and so on.

English:
Both the Exalted One and Lucky Rahula were born into the royal dynasty of King Okkaka, descending from King Maha-Sammatta.

Both the Exalted One and Lucky Rahula were born into the warrior clan, a superior family, pure like milk put into a conchshell. Both the Exalted One and Lucky Rahula gave up the kingdom and entered monkhood. The Exalted One's body was adorned with the thirty-two characteristics of a Great Man, and, being like a jeweled gateway elevated in the cities of divine beings and like a blooming coral tree, both the Exalted One and Lucky Rahula were of striking beauty. Thus, both of them were full of aspirations, both of them, being of royal birth, had gone forth. Both of them were delicate, being of royal family, both had a golden complexion. Both of them, being provided with distinguishing features, entered upon and walked along the same way. Both of them were brilliant, and were with their splendour as it were surpassing the glory of the crests of moon and sun, and of the divine Kings: Sakka, Suyama, Santusita, Nimitta Vasavatti, the Great Brahma and so on.


5. Words:

  • tala (n) : level ground, flat surface, sole.
  • kesa (m) hair.
  • upari: above, upper.
  • vesa (m): appearance.
  • vilaasa (m): grace, beauty.
  • dvatti.msa: thirty-two.
  • vicitta: variegated, adorned, ornamented.
  • byaama (m): fathom.
  • pabhaa: light, radiance.
  • byaamappabhaa (f): aura or halo (of one fathom).
  • parikkhipati (p.p. parikkhitta): encircle, surround.
  • pabbata (m): mountain.
  • kambala (n): blanket, made of hair.
  • ratta: dyed, coloured, red, crimson, shiny, bleached (of blanket).
  • pa.msukuulo (m): rag-robe.
  • cu.n.na (n): powder, dust, sand.
  • vippakirati (p.p.:vippaki.n.na): strew all over, destroy.
  • vijjullata (f): flash of lightning.
  • kanaka (n): gold.
  • majjhagato: going in the middle.
  • agghika (n): string of garlands, festoon work.
  • yanta (n): machine, mechanical device.
  • yantaasutta: cable of machine.
  • samaaka.d.dhati: pull along.
  • pa.ticchaadeti (pa.ticchanna): cover, conceal.
  • pavaa.la (m): coral.
  • lata (f): creeper.
  • pa.tima.n.dita: adorned with.
  • cetiya (n): pagoda.
  • puujeti: to honour, offer with devotion.
  • ciinapi.t.tha (n): red lead.
  • yuupa (m): sacrificial post.
  • laakha (f): lac.
  • laakhaarasa (m): lac colouring.
  • anulimpati (anulitta): besmear, anoint.
  • valaahaka (m): raincloud.
  • aho: Oh!
  • kha.na (m): moment.
  • ta"nkha.na (m): that moment.
  • abbhuggacchati: rise up, be diffused.
  • pu.n.na: full.
  • sajjeti (sajjita): prepare, decorate.
  • sampatti (f): fortune, attainment.
  • sirii sampatti : glorious splendour.

Commentary:
tatraayasmaa raahulo bhagavato pi.t.thito pi.t.thito gacchantova paadatalato yaava upari kesantaa tathaagata.m aalokesi.
There the venerable Rahula who walked behind the Exalted One looked at the "Thus-gone" from the soles of his feet up to the tips of his hairs.

so bhagavato buddhavesavilaasa.m disvaa
And when he saw the graceful appearance of a Buddha in the Exalted One, he thought:

"sobhati bhagavaa dvatti.msamahaapurisalakkha.navicittasariiro
"The Exalted One is beautiful, his body adorned with the thirty-two characteristics of a Great Man,

byaamappabhaaparikkhittataaya vippaki.n.nasuva.n.nacu.n.namajjhagato viya,
Since he is surrounded by his aura of one fathom, he is as it were going in the middle of gold dust, scattered all around him,

vijjulataaparikkhitto kanakapabbato viya,
He is like a golden mountain encircled by a flash of lightning

yantasuttasamaaka.d.dhitaratanavicitta.m suva.n.naagghika.m viya,
He is like a golden festoon decorated with jewels that is pulled along by a mechanical contrivance,

rattapa.msukuulaciivarapa.ticchannopi rattakambalaparikkhittakanakapabbato viya,
Although he is clothed in a saffron rag-robe, he is like a golden mountain covered by a shimmering woollen cloth,

pavaa.lalataapa.tima.n.dita.m suva.n.naagghika.m viya,
He is like a golden festoonwork ornamented with coral creepers,

ciinapi.t.thacu.n.napuujita.m suva.n.nacetiya.m viya,
He is like a golden pagoda which is venerated by (the application of) powder made from red lead,

laakhaarasaanulitto kanakayuupo viya,
He is like a golden sacrificial post covered with lac colouring,

rattavalaahakantarato ta"nkha.nabbhuggatapu.n.nacando viya,
He is like the full moon that emerges at that moment in between misty clouds.

aho samati.msapaaramitaanubhaavasajjitassa attabhaavassa siriisampattii''ti cintesi.
O, what splendour of his body, adorned with the majesty of the thirty perfections *."

English:
There the venerable Rahula who walked behind the Exalted One looked at the "Thus-gone" from the soles of his feet up to the tips of his hairs.

And when he saw the graceful Buddha appearance in the Exalted One, he thought: "The Exalted One is beautiful, his body adorned with the thirty-two characteristics, Since he is surrounded by his aura of one fathom, he is as it were going in the middle of gold dust, scattered all around him, He is like a golden mountain encircled by a flash of lightning He is like a golden festoon decorated with jewels that is pulled along by a mechanical contrivance. Although he is clothed in a saffron rag-robe, he is like a golden mountain covered by a shimmering woollen cloth, He is like a golden festoonwork ornamented with coral creepers, He is like a golden pagoda which is venerated by (the application of) powder made from red lead, He is like a golden sacrificial post covered with lac colouring, He is like the full moon that emerges at that moment in between misty clouds. O, what splendour of his body, adorned with the majesty of the thirty perfections *."

* The Buddha accumulated in his lives as a Bodhisatta ten perfections (generosity, morality, etc.), which can be distinguished as: basic, medium and ultimate, and in this way there are thirty perfections.


6. Words:

  • oloketi: to look at.
  • sobhati: to be beautiful.
  • akarissaa: conditional tense, if he would do (Warder Ch 29) future stem with prefix <a>.
  • cakkavattii (m): universal monarch.
  • rajja (n): reign.
  • mahaadiipa (m): continent.
  • jambudiipa: rose apple land, India.
  • parinaayaka (m): leader, advisor.
  • .t.thaana (n): place, condition.
  • anantara: immediately following.
  • ativiya: very.
  • tala (n) flat surface, land.
  • gehassita: based on the household life, on worldly life.
  • uppaadeti: to make arise, produce.
  • uppaada: arising.
  • chavi (f): skin.
  • ma.msa (n): flesh.
  • lohita (n): blood.
  • paripunna: complete, perfect.
  • rajaniiya: enticing, exciting.
  • pakkhandati: to spring, find pleasure in.
  • lata (f): creeper, greed.
  • viitinaameti: spend time.
  • atha: then, and also.
  • aavajjana (n): attention, adverting, consideration.
  • pasanna: clear, bright.
  • maccha (n): fish.
  • aadaasa (m): mirror.
  • mukha (n): mouth, face.
  • nimitta (n): sign, image.

Commentary:
tato attaanampi oloketvaa -- "ahampi sobhaami.
Then Rahula looked at himself and thought: "I am also beautiful.

sace bhagavaa catuusumahaadiipesu cakkavattirajja.m akarissaa,
If the Blessed One would reign as a Universal monarch over the four continents,

mayha.m pari.naayaka.t.thaanantara.m adassaa.
he would give me the position of advisor.

eva.m sante ativiya jambudiipatala.m asobhissaa''ti
If that would happen, Rose Apple Land would be glorious."

attabhaava.m nissaaya gehassita.m chandaraaga.m uppaadesi.
He indulged in attachment connected with worldly life, because of his bodily appearance.

bhagavaapi purato gacchantova cintesi --
The Blessed One who walked in front, thought,

"paripu.n.nacchavima.msalohito daani raahulassa attabhaavo.
"Now Rahula's outward appearance and complexion (skin, flesh and blood) have reached perfection;

rajaniiyesu ruupaaramma.naadiisu hi cittassa pakkhandanakaalo jaato,
now the time has come for his mind to rejoice in enticing objects of sight and so on;

ki.m bahulataaya nu kho raahulo viitinaametii''ti.
why is Rahula wasting his time with so much desire!"

atha sahaavajjaneneva pasannaudake maccha.m viya, parisuddhe aadaasama.n.dale mukhanimitta.m viya ca tassa ta.m cittuppaada.m addasa.
Then, by thus adverting his attention to it, he saw the arising of that consciousness of Rahula, as clearly as if he saw a fish in clear water, and as if he saw in a clean mirror the reflection of a face.

English:
Then Rahula looked at himself and thought: "I am also beautiful. If the Blessed One would reign as a Universal monarch over the four continents, he would give me the position of advisor. If that would happen, Rose Apple Land would be glorious."

He indulged in attachment connected with worldly life, because of his bodily appearance. The Blessed One who walked in front, thought, "Now Rahula's outward appearance and complexion have reached perfection; now the time has come for his mind to rejoice in enticing objects of sight and so on; why is Rahula wasting his time with so much desire!"

Then, by thus adverting his attention to it, he saw the arising of that consciousness of Rahula, as clearly as if he saw a fish in clear water, and as if he saw in a clean mirror the reflection of a face.


7. Words:

  • atraja (m): son.
  • pasanna: clear, bright.
  • va.n.na (m): colour, appearance.
  • aayatana (n): sphere, field.
  • atittha.m : unsuitable place or manner.
  • pakkhandati: spring forward, rejoice.
  • uppatha (m): wrong course.
  • gocara (m): pasture, field, object.
  • carati: to roam about, walk.
  • muu.lha (muyhati): confused, astray.
  • addhiko: exceeding, superior.
  • abbhantara: interior.
  • va.d.dhati: grow, prosper.
  • passati: to see.
  • dassati: to see (or from another stem, it can be the future of dadaati: to give).
  • dasseti: to show.
  • attattha (m): own benefit (attha).
  • parattha: other's benefit.
  • para: other.
  • ga.nhaapeti: cause to be taken, seized.
  • yoni: origin, plane.
  • sambaadha (m): pressure, inconvenience.
  • maatukucchi (m, f): mother's womb.
  • agga: highest, topmost.
  • anamatagga: without beginning or end.
  • paripaatati: fall down, go to ruin.
  • paripaateti: attack, kill, bring to ruin.
  • pettivisaya (m): world of ghosts.

Commentary:
disvaava -- "aya.m raahulo mayha.m atrajo hutvaa mama pacchato aagacchanto
After the Buddha had seen this, he considered: "Rahula who is my son, walks behind me,

'aha.m sobhaami,mayha.m va.n.naayatana.m pasanna'nti
thinking, 'I am handsome, my complexion is fair',

attabhaava.m nissaaya gehassitachandaraaga.m uppaadeti,
and worldly desire because of his bodily appearance has arisen in him.

atitthe pakkhando uppatha.m pa.tipanno agocare carati,
He rejoices in what is unsuitable, he is following the wrong way and is erring.

disaamuu.lhaaddhiko viya agantabba.m disa.m gacchati.
Just like someone who is exceedingly led astray, he goes into the wrong direction where he should not go.

aya.m kho panassa kileso abbhantare va.d.dhanto
Since his defilements are increasing within him,

attatthampi yathaabhuuta.m passitu.m na dassati, paratthampi, ubhayatthampi.
he does not see as it truly is his own benefit, the benefit of someone else nor the benefit of both himself and someone else.

tato nirayepi pa.tisandhi.m ga.nhaapessati, tiracchaanayoniyampi,
Therefore, this will take him to rebirth in a hell plane, in the animal world,

pettivisayepi, asurakaayepi, sambaadhepi maatukucchisminti
in the ghost plane, or in the confined condition of the mother's womb.

anamatagge sa.msaarava.t.te paripaatessati.
It will make him fall down in the cycle of birth and death, without beginning or end.

English:
After the Buddha had seen this, he considered: Rahula who is my son, walks behind me, thinking, 'I am handsome, my complexion is fair', and worldly desire because of his bodily appearance has arisen in him. He rejoices in what is unsuitable, he is following the wrong way and is erring. Just like someone who is exceedingly led astray, he goes into the wrong direction where he should not go. Since his defilements are increasing within him, he does not see as it truly is his own benefit, the benefit of someone else nor the benefit of both himself and someone else.

Therefore, this will take him to rebirth in a hell plane, in the animal world, in the ghost plane, or in the confined condition of the mother's womb. It will make him fall down in the cycle of birth and death, without beginning or end.


8. Words:

  • anattha (m): harm, ruin.
  • janana (n): production, causing.
  • pakopana: agitating.
  • jaata: born, occurred.
  • bhaya (n): fear, danger.
  • antara: inner.
  • jana (m): person.
  • avabujjhati: to understand.
  • luddha: greedy.
  • andha: blind.
  • tama: dark.
  • sahati: overcome (sahate: poetic, Warder, Ch 28).
  • attha... dhamma: effect and cause.
  • bhindati: to break.
  • phalaka (m): board.
  • abbhantaro (n): the inside, interior.
  • aadiyati: take up, take in, grasp.
  • muhutta (m, n): moment, minute.
  • ajjhupekkhati: neglect.
  • vega (m): force, speed.
  • vegena: quickly.
  • vivara (n): opening, fissure.
  • pidahati: close, cover.
  • va.t.tati: to be proper.
  • vinaaseti: ruin, destroy.
  • nigga.nhaati: censure, restrain.
  • ajjhaasaya (m): intention, disposition.
  • naaga: cobra, elephant.
  • vilokana (n): investigation.
  • naagavilokana: elephant's look (of the Buddha).
  • pa.timaa (f): image.
  • parivattati: turn around.
  • viloketi: look, investigate.
  • evaruupa: such.
  • .thaana (n): place, condition.
  • .thito: standing.

Commentary:
aya˝hi --
This is the saying:

anatthajanano lobho, lobho cittappakopano.
Desire leads to harm, it agitates the mind,

bhayamantarato jaata.m, ta.m jano naavabujjhati.
peril occurs within, but people do not understand this.

luddho attha.m na jaanaati, luddho dhamma.m na passati.
The person with desire does not know cause and effect. *

andhatama.m tadaa hoti, ya.m lobho sahate nara.m.. (itivu 88) --
There is dense darkness when desire overwhelms people.

yathaa kho pana anekaratanapuuraa mahaanaavaa bhinnaphalakantarena udaka.m aadiyamaanaa
Just as a vessel full of treasures that takes in water through a broken board inside

muhuttampi na ajjhupekkhitabbaa hoti,
should not be neglected for one moment,

vegenassaa vivara.m pidahitu.m va.t.tati,
and its hole should be quickly closed,

evameva.m ayampi na ajjhupekkhitabbo.
even so should Rahula not be neglected.

yaavassa aya.m kileso abbhantare siilaratanaadiini na vinaaseti,
So long as those defilements do not destroy the treasures of his virtue,

taavadeva na.m nigga.nhissaamii''ti ajjhaasayamakaasi.
I can still censure him." Thus the Buddha decided.

evaruupesu pana .thaanesu buddhaana.m naagavilokana.m naama hoti.
At such occasions Buddhas look around with the Elephant's Look.

tasmaa yantena parivattitasuva.n.napa.timaa viya
Therefore, just as a golden statue is turned around by a mechanical device,

sakalakaayeneva parivattetvaa .thito raahulabhadda.m aamantesi.
he turned around with his whole body and so standing he addressed Lucky Rahula.

ta.m sandhaaya "atha kho bhagavaa apaloketvaa''tiaadi vutta.m.
In this connection it was said, "then the Buddha after he had looked around" and so on.

English:
This is the saying:

Desire leads to harm, it agitates the mind, peril occurs within, but people do not understand this. The person with desire does not know cause and effect. * There is dense darkness when desire overwhelms people.

Just as a vessel full of treasures that takes in water through a broken board inside should not be neglected for one moment, and its hole should be quickly closed, even so Rahula should not be neglected. So long as those defilements do not destroy the treasures of his virtue, I can still censure him." Thus the Buddha decided. At such occasions Buddhas look around with the Elephant's Look. Therefore, just as a golden statue is turned around by a mechanical device, he turned around with his whole body and so standing he addressed Lucky Rahula. In this connection it was said, "then the Buddha after he had looked around" and so on.

* the person with attachment does not understand the cause (dhamma as cause, hetu) of dukkha, which is craving, nor the effect (attha) which is dukkha. He does not understand the noble Truths and thus there will not be the cessation of dukkha.

In this book

Introduction

Part 1:
Section a
Section b
Section c
Section d
Section e
Part 2:
Section a
Part 6:
Section a
Part 7:
Section a
Part 11:
Section a
Part 12:
Section a
Part 13:
Section a

Conclusion