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A Practical Grammar of the Pāli Language
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
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A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language

Chapter IV


(a) Strengthening Process

103. Strengthening is the process of changing a vowel sound into another vowel sound.

104. The vowels which undergo strengthening are: a, i, ii, u and uu.

105. Thus:
a being strengthened, becomes aa.
i being strengthened, becomes e.
ii being strengthened, becomes e.
u being strengthened, becomes o.
uu being strengthened, becomes o.

106. The result thus obtained is also called gu.na (quality).

107. Therefore, the gu.na of a is aa, that of i and ii is e, that of u and uu is o.

108. Further, as we already know (by rules 27(i)a, 27(ii)b), final e and o when followed by a vowel may be changed into their semi-vowel + that vowel.

109. The following table of these very useful changes should be borne in mind.

Simple vowel Strengthening or gu.na Vowel and semi-vowel
a aa none
i, ii e ay
u, uu o av

110. Strengthening occurs frequently in the formation of verbal bases, of Verbals (See chapter on Verbs) and in the derivation of words under the influence of certain suffixes.

Remarks. In the derivation of Primary and Secondary Nouns (see Derivation), it will simplify matters to assume at once that:
i or ii + a = aya.
u or uu + a = ava.
e + a = aya.
o + a = ava.

(b) Metathesis

111. Examples of metathesis have already (78) been given.

112. Metathesis is the transposition of letters or of syllables in a word; the following are further instances of this transposition:
(i) pariyudaahaasi becomes payirudaahaasi.
(ii) ariya becomes ayira.
(iii) kariyaa becomes kayiraa.
(iv) masaka becomes makasa.
(v) rasmi becomes ra.msi.
(vi) na abhineyya becomes anabhineyya.
(vii) cilimikaa becomes cimilikaa.

(c) Epenthesis

113. Epenthesis is the insertion of a letter in the middle of a word.

114. Epenthesis is resorted to mostly to avoid a hiatus of the collocation of consonants of different organs:


(i) klesa becomes kilesa.
(ii) aacaarya becomes aacaariya.
(iii) tia`ngula becomes tiva`ngula.
(iv) hyo becomes hiiyo or hiyyo.
(v) barhisa becomes barihisa.
(vi) hrada becomes harada.
(vii) arhati becomes arahati.
(viii) srii becomes sirii.
(ix) hrii becomes hirii.
(x) plavati becomes pilavati.

(d) Dropping of Syllables

115. Sometimes, for the sake of the metre, or to facilitate pronunciation, whole syllables are dropped:
(i) abhi~n~naaya sacchikatvaa, becomes, abhi~n~naa sacchikatvaa.
(ii) jambudiipa.m avekkhanto addasa, becomes, jambudiipa.m avekkhanto adda.
(iii) dasasahassii, becomes, dasahassi.
(iv) chada`ngula, becomes, cha`ngula.