Tipitaka Network :: Pāḷi Synthesis
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- A New Course in Learning Pali
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- Introduction to Pali (Detailed grammatical analysis)
- Introduction to Pali (Trilinear translation)
- The New Pali Course Part I
- The New Pali Course Part II
- Pali Primer
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Masculine nouns ending in -a
- ratha - vehicle, chariot
- saka.ta - cart
- hattha - hand
- paada - foot
- magga - path
- diipa - island, lamp
- saavaka - disciple
- sama.na - recluse, monk
- sagga - heaven
- assa - horse
- miga - deer
- sara - arrow
- paasaa.na - rock, stone
- kakaca - saw
- khagga - sword
- cora - thief
- pa.n.dita - wise man
2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Instrumental case: The case ending -ena is added to the nominal base to form
the instrumental singular. The case ending -ehi is added to form the
instrumental plural; -ebhi is another archaic case ending that is sometimes
added. A noun thus inflected expresses the idea 'by', 'with' or 'through'.
- nara + ena = narena (by means of the man)
- maatula + ena = maatulena (with the uncle)
- kassaka + ena = kassakena (through the farmer)
- nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi)
- maatula + ehi = maatulehi (maatulebhi)
- kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi)
Saddhi.m/saha meaning 'with' is also used with the instrumental case. They
are not normally used with nouns denoting things.
3. Examples in sentence formation
- Sama.no narena saddhi.m gaama.m gacchati.
The monk goes to the village with the man.
- Putto maatulena saha canda.m passati.
The son sees the moon with his uncle.
- Kassako kakacena rukkha.m chindati.
The farmer cuts the tree with a saw.
- Sama.naa narehi saddhi.m gaama.m gacchanti.
Monks go to the village with men.
- Puttaa maatulehi saha canda.m passanti.
Sons see the moon with uncles.
- Kassakaa kakacehi rukkhe chindanti.
Farmers cut trees with saws.
Translate into English
- Buddho saavakehi saddhi.m vihaara.m gacchati.
- Puriso puttena saha diipa.m dhaavati.
- Kassako sarena sigaala.m vijjhati.
- Braahma.naa maatulena saha pabbata.m aaruhanti.
- Puttaa paadehi kukkure paharanti.
- Maatulo puttehi saddhi.m rathena gaama.m aagacchati.
- Kumaaraa hatthehi patte aaharanti.
- Coro maggena assa.m harati.
- Kassako aavaa.ta.m oruhati.
- Bhuupaalaa pa.n.ditehi saha sama.ne passanti.
- Pa.n.dito bhuupaalena saha Tathaagata.m vandati.
- Puttaa sahaayena saddhi.m odana.m bhu~njanti.
- Va.nijo paasaa.nena miga.m paharati.
- Sunakhaa paadehi aavaa.te kha.nanti.
- Braahma.no puttena saha suriya.m vandati.
- Kassako so.nehi saddhi.m rukkhe rakkhanti.
- Sugato saavakehi saha vihaara.m aagacchati.
- Yaacako pattena bhatta.m aaharati.
- Pa.n.ditaa sagga.m gacchanti.
- Kumaaraa assehi saddhi.m gaama.m dhaavanti.
- Coro khaggena nara.m paharati.
- Vaa.nijo saka.tena dipe aaharati.
- Assaa maggena dhaavanti.
- Sigaalaa migehi saddhi.m pabbata.m dhaavanti.
- Bhuupaalo pa.n.ditena saha manusse rakkhati.
Translate into Paali
- The recluse sees the Buddha with his friend.
- Disciples go to the monastery with the Buddha.
- The horse runs to the mountain with the dogs.
- The boy hits the lamp with a stone.
- Merchants shoot deer with arrows.
- Farmers dig pits with their hands.
- Boys go to the monastery by chariot with their uncle.
- The brahmin cooks rice with his friend.
- The king protects the island with wise men.
- Kings worship monks with their sons.
- Thieves bring horses to the island.
- Disciples climb mountains with men.
- Merchants cut trees with farmers.
- The beggar digs a pit with a friend.
- The brahmin sees the moon with his uncles.
- The thief hits the horse with a sword.
- The son brings rice in a bowl.
- Boys run to the mountain with their dogs.
- Merchants come to the village by carts with farmers.
- Uncles come to the monastery by chariots with their sons.
- Jackals run to the mountain along the road.
- Dogs dig pits with their feet.
- The man carries a saw in his hand.
- Recluses go to heaven.
- The Buddha comes to the village with his disciples.