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Paali Primer
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 11
Lesson 12
Lesson 13
Lesson 14
Lesson 15
Lesson 16
Lesson 17
Lesson 18
Lesson 19
Lesson 20
Lesson 21
Lesson 22
Lesson 23
Lesson 24
Lesson 25
Lesson 26
Lesson 27
Lesson 28
Lesson 29
Lesson 30
Lesson 31
Lesson 32
For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

Paali Primer

Lesson 3

1. Vocabulary

Masculine nouns ending in -a

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

Instrumental case: The case ending -ena is added to the nominal base to form the instrumental singular. The case ending -ehi is added to form the instrumental plural; -ebhi is another archaic case ending that is sometimes added. A noun thus inflected expresses the idea 'by', 'with' or 'through'.


  1. nara + ena = narena (by means of the man)
  2. maatula + ena = maatulena (with the uncle)
  3. kassaka + ena = kassakena (through the farmer)


  1. nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi)
  2. maatula + ehi = maatulehi (maatulebhi)
  3. kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi)

Saddhi.m/saha meaning 'with' is also used with the instrumental case. They are not normally used with nouns denoting things.

3. Examples in sentence formation


  1. Sama.no narena saddhi.m gaama.m gacchati.
    The monk goes to the village with the man.
  2. Putto maatulena saha canda.m passati.
    The son sees the moon with his uncle.
  3. Kassako kakacena rukkha.m chindati.
    The farmer cuts the tree with a saw.


  1. Sama.naa narehi saddhi.m gaama.m gacchanti.
    Monks go to the village with men.
  2. Puttaa maatulehi saha canda.m passanti.
    Sons see the moon with uncles.
  3. Kassakaa kakacehi rukkhe chindanti.
    Farmers cut trees with saws.

Exercise 3

Translate into English

  1. Buddho saavakehi saddhi.m vihaara.m gacchati.
  2. Puriso puttena saha diipa.m dhaavati.
  3. Kassako sarena sigaala.m vijjhati.
  4. Braahma.naa maatulena saha pabbata.m aaruhanti.
  5. Puttaa paadehi kukkure paharanti.
  6. Maatulo puttehi saddhi.m rathena gaama.m aagacchati.
  7. Kumaaraa hatthehi patte aaharanti.
  8. Coro maggena assa.m harati.
  9. Kassako aavaa.ta.m oruhati.
  10. Bhuupaalaa pa.n.ditehi saha sama.ne passanti.
  11. Pa.n.dito bhuupaalena saha Tathaagata.m vandati.
  12. Puttaa sahaayena saddhi.m odana.m bhu~njanti.
  13. Va.nijo paasaa.nena miga.m paharati.
  14. Sunakhaa paadehi aavaa.te kha.nanti.
  15. Braahma.no puttena saha suriya.m vandati.
  16. Kassako so.nehi saddhi.m rukkhe rakkhanti.
  17. Sugato saavakehi saha vihaara.m aagacchati.
  18. Yaacako pattena bhatta.m aaharati.
  19. Pa.n.ditaa sagga.m gacchanti.
  20. Kumaaraa assehi saddhi.m gaama.m dhaavanti.
  21. Coro khaggena nara.m paharati.
  22. Vaa.nijo saka.tena dipe aaharati.
  23. Assaa maggena dhaavanti.
  24. Sigaalaa migehi saddhi.m pabbata.m dhaavanti.
  25. Bhuupaalo pa.n.ditena saha manusse rakkhati.

Translate into Paali

  1. The recluse sees the Buddha with his friend.
  2. Disciples go to the monastery with the Buddha.
  3. The horse runs to the mountain with the dogs.
  4. The boy hits the lamp with a stone.
  5. Merchants shoot deer with arrows.
  6. Farmers dig pits with their hands.
  7. Boys go to the monastery by chariot with their uncle.
  8. The brahmin cooks rice with his friend.
  9. The king protects the island with wise men.
  10. Kings worship monks with their sons.
  11. Thieves bring horses to the island.
  12. Disciples climb mountains with men.
  13. Merchants cut trees with farmers.
  14. The beggar digs a pit with a friend.
  15. The brahmin sees the moon with his uncles.
  16. The thief hits the horse with a sword.
  17. The son brings rice in a bowl.
  18. Boys run to the mountain with their dogs.
  19. Merchants come to the village by carts with farmers.
  20. Uncles come to the monastery by chariots with their sons.
  21. Jackals run to the mountain along the road.
  22. Dogs dig pits with their feet.
  23. The man carries a saw in his hand.
  24. Recluses go to heaven.
  25. The Buddha comes to the village with his disciples.