Pali Word by Word


The word is usually translated as 'and'. Some uses of ca and its contexts are found in Dines Andersen's "A Pali Glossary" (on the Dhammapada).

After studying PED and Introduction to Pali, I have gathered a list of 'phrases' that contain 'ca' but have different meanings.

1. ca: and;
2. api ca: nevertheless, further, and also, moreover (PED api);
3. api ca kho: moreover, and yet, still, all the same (PED api);
4. api ca kho pana: all the same, never mind, nevertheless (PED api);
5. ca pana: moreover, but (PED pana);
6. atha ca pana: and yet (PED pana), on the other hand (PED atha);
7. tada ca: now then, and then;
8. so ca: whoever;
9. yo ca: but who;
10. yada ca: but when;
11. na ca (affirmative): but not;
12. na ca (interrogative): if not;
13. ajjata~n ca - this very day (PED ajjata);
14. ca … ca - both … and, … as well as … (PED api);
15. ca c'ubhaya.m - and both, for both … and; and also, alike as well (PED ubhaya);
16. no ca kho - but surely not (PED no);
17. ciram pi kho… ca - although for a long time… yet (PED pi);
18. yaava~n ca - and that, that is; how much, however much, so great (PED yaavant).

Example phrases from PED:
1. mahanta~n ca khuddaka~n ca = small and large (PED anu);
2. attano ca parato ca = as regards himself and others (PED attan);
3. anattho ca attho ca = detriment and profit (PED attha);
4. bhaasitattha~n ca paa.lidhamma~n ca = the "letter" and the "spirit" (PED attha);
5. ma~n ca ta~n ca ki.m antara.m = what is there between you and me? (PED antara);
6. antaraa ca Raajagaha.m antaraa ca Naa.landa.m = between Rajagaha and Nalanda (PED antara);
7. di.t.the cceva dhamme abhisamparaaya~n ca = in this world and in the world to come (PED abhisamparaya);
8. asmi.m loke paramhi ca = in this world and the other (PED aya.m);
9. aya~n ca aya~n ca = this and this, so and so (PED aya.m);
10. avasesaa ca ~naatakaa = the rest of the relatives (PED avasesa);
11. kaala~n ca samaya~n ca = to time and convenience (PED upadaya);
12. kataani akataani ca = deeds done and not done (PED kata);
13. ca--kaara = the particle ca (PED kaara);
14. yaso kittii ca = fame and renown (PED kitti kitti);
15. aagacchantaana~n ca gacchantaana~n ca pamaana.m n'atthi = there was no end of all who came and went (PED gacchati);
16. tuyha~n ca tassaa ca = to you and her (PED ca);
17. hasi c'eva rodi ca = he laughed as well as cried (PED ca);
18. c'eva apace paduuse pi ca = waste and even defile (PED ca);
19. na ca pa~n~naa taduupikaa = but your wisdom is not in the same proportion (PED ca);
20. Sakko ca me vara.m dajjaa so ca labbhetha me varo = if Sakka will give me a wish, that wish will be granted (PED ca);
21. khudaaya tanhaaya ca khajjamaanaa = tormented by hunger and thirst (PED tanha);
22. titto ca tappetaa ca = self-satisfied and satisfying others (PED tappetar);
23. daarake ca daarikaayo = boys and girls (PED daraka);
24. daasaa ca kammakaraa = slaves and labourers (PED dasa);
25. dhammo ca vinayo ca = dhamma and vinaya;
26. divaa ca ratto ca = day and night (PED ratta);
27. rattiyaa ca divasassa ca = by night and by day (PED ratti).

Note: Paragraph numbers are from CSCD.

(1) DN1 Brahmajala Sutta para.1
Eva.m me suta.m - eka.m samaya.m bhagavaa
thus / I / heard / one / time / the Blessed One
Thus have I heard, at one time, the Blessed One,

antaraa ca raajagaha.m antaraa ca na.landa.m
in between / and / Rajagaha / in between / and / Nalanda
between Rajagaha and Nalanda,

addhaanamagga-ppa.tipanno hoti mahataa bhikkhusa"nghena saddhi.m
high road-going along / is / great / [with] congregation of monks / with
is going along the high road with a great congregation of monks,

pa~ncamattehi bhikkhusatehi.
[with] as many as five times of / [with] one hundred monks.
with as many as five hundred monks.

(2) DN1 Brahmajala Sutta para.68
Sa~n~n-uppaadaa ca pana te devaa tamhaa kaayaa cavanti.
perception-arising / but / they / devas / from it / bodies / decease
But by the arising of perception, they, the devas, decease from the bodies. (note: they are asa~n~nasatta, only body, no citta.)

sa~n~nuppaadaa = sa~n~nin (sa~n~nii), having perception + uppaada,
arising, coming into existence;
cavati - decease, fall away.

(3) DN15 Mahanidana Sutta para.119
Kittaavataa ca, Aananda, attaana.m na pa~n~napento na pa~n~napeti?
to what extent / and / Ananda / a soul (self) / not / declaring / not / (he) declares
And to what extent, Ananda, when he does not make declaration as to a self, does he not declare so?

(4) DN24 Pathika Sutta para.7
Api ca, tuyheveta.m paapaka.m di.t.thigata.m uppanna.m, ta.m pajaha.
nevertheless / for you indeed / evil / accompanied by wrong views / arisen / you / abandon
Nevertheless, for you, that evil accompanied by wrong view has indeed arisen, abandon it.

di.t.thi - wrong views;
di.t.thigata - resorting to wrong views;
pajaha - (adj.) abandon, renounce.

(tuyha eva eta.m, tuyha: of or for you, PED, p. 306)

(5) DN33 Sangiti Sutta para.342
So ca hoti duppa~n~no ja.lo e.lamuugo,
whoever / is / defective in wisdom / stupid / deaf and dumb
Whoever is defective in wisdom, stupid, deaf and dumb,

nappa.tibalo subhaasitadubbhaasitaanam-attham-a~n~naatu.m.
[he is] not competent / out of the well-spoken and ill-spoken-the meaning-to understand
he is not competent to understand the meaning out of what is well spoken and ill spoken.

pa~n~na - wisdom, insight;
duppa~n~na - defective in wisdom; - stupid, dull; - deaf;
muuga - dumb;
pa.tibala - competent, able;
bhaasita - spoken, said, saying;
subhaasita - well-spoken;
dubbhaasita - ill-spoken;
subhaasitadubbhaasitaanam - out of the well-spoken and ill-spoken [see Charles Duroiselle's A Practical Grammar of the Pali Language §595(iii)]
attha - meaning;
aajaanaati - to understand, to know, to learn;
a~n~naatu.m is the infinitive of aajaanaati.

Word List 1:

01. ca | na | ti | pe | vaa | kho | bhikkhave | hoti | dhammo | so
11. uppajjati | paccayo | tattha | pa.ticca | ta.m | dhammaa | dhamma.m | te | eva.m | pana
21. tassa | no | eka.m | bhikkhu | | tesa.m | me | bhagavaa | bhante | dve
31. aya.m | atha | tena | ya.m | hetupaccayaa | nava | atthi | yo | ye | dhammassa
41. bhikkhuu | aamantaa | citta.m | khandhaa | yassa | ruupa.m | pańca | viharati | aavuso | vuccati