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Introduction to Pali (1991)
Lesson 3 (sample text)
Declension of bhagavant, brahman, and raajan
A few masculine nouns in stems other than a are of common
occurrence. The usual title for the Buddha in Pali texts has the stem
form bhagavant, meaning "the fortunate", "the bountiful", "the Master"
(translations vary: "the blessed one", "the exalted one", etc.). The
inflections in the nominative and accusative are as follows:-
The noun brahman, meaning "God" (the supreme being and creator in
the Brahmanical religion of the hereditary priesthood of India), is
inflected in the nominative and accusative singular as follows:-
The noun raajan, "king", is similarly inflected in these cases.
Verbs of the cur or seventh conjugation (curaadi ga.na) form present
stems with the vowel e (or, much less often, with the fuller suffix
aya, of which e is a contraction). The root vowel is strengthened and
sometimes lengthened. As in the first conjugation i and u become e and
o, but a is often lengthened (vuddhi) to aa. The personal endings are
similar to those of the first conjugation. From the root dis, "to
Similarly conjugated are:-
- kath ... katheti ... he relates, he tells
- kam ... kaameti ... he loves
- cha.d.d ... cha.d.deti ... he throws away, he abandons
- (~n)~nap (with the prefix (p)pa) ... pa~n~naapeti ... he prepares, he declares (he regulates) (~n is always doubled when between two vowels: or we can say initial ~n is always in fact (~n)~n)
- dhar ... dhaareti ... he holds, he wears, he has, he accepts (with two patients/accusatives: x as y), he remembers
- mant ... manteti ... he takes counsel, he discusses (confidentially)
- mant (with the prefix aa) ... aamanteti ... he addresses
- va~nc ... va~nceti ... he deceives
- vad (to speak) (with the prefix abhi, meaning "towards", "about") ... abhivaadeti ... he salutes, he greets, he takes leave
- vaas (to dress) (with the prefix ni) ... nivaaseti ... he dresses
- vid (to feel) (with the prefixes (p)pa.ti, meaning "towards", "back", and sa.m) ... pa.tisa.mvedeti ... he feels, he experiences (something to be something)
- ve.th (to twist, to wrap) (with the prefix ni(r), meaning "out") ... nibbe.theti ... he untwists, he unravels, he explains, he rebuts
Masculine nouns in a:-
- kaalo ... time, opportunity, proper time (appropriate time)
- paccayo ... condition, cause
- bhaaro ... burden, load
- laabho ... gain
- vipaako ... result
- vihaaro ... life, way of life, dwelling (also used figuratively of a mental state, e.g., of happiness)
- hattho ... hand