Tipitaka Network :: Pāḷi Synthesis
Unicode | Velthuis
More Pāli | News
Vesak's Greetings
Andy's Pāli Page
A pioneer online Pāli resource
.:on the shelves:.
.:in the solutions:.
The Pali Collective
Oops! RSS input from Yahoo! Groups is currently not available.
Developed and supported by PaliLogix.
For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

Introduction to Pali (1991)

Lesson 17 (sample text)

Declension of Masculine and Neuter Nouns in -a and Feminine Nouns in -aa

As all the cases of the nouns in a have been given we can now recapitulate the whole declension, adding the various pronominal inflections (such as the ablatives in asmaa and amhaa) which are sometimes used with these nouns:-

Masculine stem in a, loka:

Singular Plural
1. Nom. Voc. loko loka lokaa
2. Acc. loka.m loke
3. Instr. lokena lokehi
4. Dative lokaaya, lokassa lokaana.m
5. Abl. lokaa, lokasmaa, lokamhaa (lokato) lokehi
6. Gen. lokassa lokaana.m
7. Loc. loke, lokasmi.m lokesu

Neuters in a:

- have the special forms nominative singular in a.m and nominative and accusative plural in aani: citta.m, cittaani; otherwise they are inflected in the same way as the masculines.

Declension of feminine stems in aa:

Singular Plural
Nom. kathaa (kathaa) or kathaayo
Voc. kathe
Acc. katha.m
Ins. Dat. Abl. Gen. kathaaya kathaahi, kathaana.m
Loc. kathaaya or kathaaya.m kathaasu

Declension of Pronouns

Recapitulation of the pronominal declension:-

Stem ya(d) (relative pronoun):

Singular Plural
Masc. Neut. Fem. Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. yo yam or yad yaa ye yaani yaa
Acc. ya.m ya.m or yad ya.m
Ins. yena yaaya yehi yaahi
Dat. yassa yassaa yesa.m yaasa.m
Abl. yasmaa or yamhaa yaaya yehi yaahi
Gen. yassa yassaa yesa.m yaasa.m
Loc. yasmi.m or yamhi yaaya(.m) or yassa.m yesu yaasu

Personal pronouns:

First - ma(d) or mam Second - ta(d)
Nom. aha.m maya.m tva.m tumhe
Acc. ma.m amhe or no tva.m or ta.m tumhe or vo
Ins. mayaa or me amhehi or no tayaa or te tumhehi or vo
Dat. mama(.m) or me, sometimes mayha.m amhaaka.m or no tava or te tumhaaka.m or vo
Abl. mayaa amhehi tayaa tumhehi
Gen. mama(.m) or me, sometimes mayha.m amhaaka.m or no tava or te tumhaaka.m or vo
Loc. mayi amhesu tayi tumhesu

Demonstrative ida.m-: singular masculine and feminine nominative aya.m, accusative ima.m; neuter ida.m; instrumental masculine and neuter iminaa, feminine imaaya; genitive/dative masculine and neuter assa, feminine assaa; ablative masculine and neuter imamhaa or imasmaa, feminine imaaya; locative masculine and neuter asmi.m or imasmi.m, feminine imaaya(.m).

Plural follows the declension of ya(d), in all genders, on the stem ima.

Interrogative ki.m as ya(d) (stem ka) except: neuter nominative accusative singular ki.m; masculine and neuter dative and genitive singular either kassa or kissa; masculine and neuter locative singular kismi.m or kimhi.

A demonstrative pronoun with the stem na is inflected in the same way as ta(d): accusative singular na.m, genitive plural nesa.m, etc. The nominative does not seem to be used. The meaning is hardly distinguishable from that of ta(d).

Adverbial Accusative

The accusative singular neuter of a noun or adjective (i.e., a masculine noun is made neuter, etc.) may be used as an "adverb" or indeclinable. This kind of adverb is called bhaavanapu.msaka, "impersonal-neuter" or "neuter of state", or kiriyaavisesana, "action-qualifier". E.g.:-

Adjective                     Adverb
cira long (time)              cira.m (for a) long (time)
diigha long (place or time)   diigha.m long
rassa short                   rassa.m shortly (e.g. in breathing "shortly")
saadhuka good                 saadhuka.m well

Numerals: eka, dvi, pa~nca, sata.m, sahassa.m

The numeral stem eka, "one", is inflected like the relatve pronoun, except in the feminine, where in the dative, genitive, and locative singular, a stem in i appears instead of a. It is used like an adjective or pronoun, or like the indefinite article in English: "a" (but only to emphasize the indefiniteness when required). In the plural it means "some":-

Singular Plural
Masc. Neut. Fem. Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. eko eka.m ekaa eke ekaani ekaa
Acc. eka.m eka.m eka.m
Inst. ekena ekaaya ekehi ekaahi
Dat. ekassa ekissaa ekesa.m ekaasa.m
Abl. ekasmaa or ekamhaa ekaaya ekehi ekaahi
Gen. ekassa ekissaa ekesa.m ekaasa.m
Loc. ekasmi.m or ekamhi ekissaa ekesu ekaasu

The numerals dvi, "two" and pa~nca, "five", which are used like adjectives, are inflected as follows for all genders:-

Nom. Acc. dve pa~nca
Ins. dviihi pa~ncahi
Dat. dvinna.m pa~ncanna.m
Abl. dviihi pa~ncahi
Gen. dvinna.m pa~ncanna.m
Loc. dviisu pa~ncasu

The numerals sata.m, "hundred" and sahassa.m, "thousand" are neuter nouns, inflected like neuters in a and used in apposition with other nouns (i.e. not agreeing in gender but only in case) or with nouns in the genitive. They are used is both singular and plural: sata.m purisa.m or sataani purisaa or sata.m purisaa or sataani purisa.m or sata.m purisaana.m, all meaning "a hundred men". Alternatively a compound may be formed: purisasata.m (genitive tappurisa).

Conjunctive Indeclinables

Phrases or sentences may be joined to make a continuous "period" or paragraph by "conjunctive" (also "disjunctive", etc.) indeclinables, several of which have been met already. Here we may recapitulate these in a synopsis of the main indeclinables of thie type, grouped according to function (with references to passages for reading in previous exercises in which some of them have occurred).

"Conjunctive" (samuccaya) in the literal sense:-

"Disjunctive" (vikappana):-

"Adversative" (visesa):-

"Causal" (kaara.na):-

"Emphatic" (eka.msa):-

"Hypothetical" (sa.mkaa):-

"Interrogative" (pucchana):-

(Some of these indeclinables have other uses besides the connecting of phrases or sentences.)