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A Practical Grammar of the Pāli Language
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language

Chapter VIII


250. The numerals are as follows:

251. Table of cardinals and ordinals

Cardinals Ordinals
1. eka, one pa.thama, first
2. dve, two dutiya, second
3. tayo, three tatiya, third
4. cattaaro catuttha, turiiya
5. pa~nca pa~ncatha, pa~ncama
6. cha cha.t.tha, chatthama
7. satta sattha, sattama
8. a.t.tha a.t.thama
9. nava navama
10. dasa, rasa, lasa, .lasa dasama
11. ekaarasa, ekaadasa ekarasama
12. baarasa, dvaarasa baarasama
13. tedasa, terasa, telasa tedasama
14. catuddasa, cuddasa, coddasa catuddasama
15. pa~ncadasa, pa.n.narasa, pannarasa pa~ncadasama
16. so.lasa, sorasa so.lasama
17. sattadasa, sattarasa sattadasama
18. a.t.thaadasa, a.t.thaarasa a.t.thaadasama
19. ekuunaviisati, ekuunaviisa.m ekuunaviisatima
20. viisati, viisa.m viisatima
21. ekaviisati, ekaviisa.m ekaviisatima
22. dvaaviisati dvaaviisatima
23. teviisati teviisatima
24. catuviisati catuviisatima
25. pa~ncaviisati pa~ncaviisatima
26. chabbiisati chabbiisatima
27. sattabiisati, sattaviisati sattabiisatima
28. a.t.thaviisa.m a.t.thaviisatima
29. ekuunati.msati, ekuunati.msa.m ekuunati.msatima
30. ti.msati, ti.msa.m ti.msatima
31. ekati.msati ekati.msatima
32. dvatti.msati dvatti.msatima
40. cattaaliisa.m, cattaariisa.m cattaalisatiima
50. pa~n~naasa, pa~n~naasa.m pa~n~naasama
60. sa.t.thi sa.t.thima
70. sattati sattatima
80. asiiti asiitima
90. navuti navutima
100. sata.m satama
200. baasata.m, dvaasata.m baasatama
1000. sahassa.m sahassama
10,000. dasasahassa.m dasasahassama
10,000,000. ko.ti ko.tima

252. (I) Cardinals

253. Eka, one, is in the singular very often used in an indefinite sense, meaning: a certain, a; as, eko naaviko, a boatman, a certain boatman. ekaa kumaarikaa, a princess, a certain princess. In the plural, it means: some, as, eke purisaa, some men... ekaa maanusini, some women...

254. The cardinals, eka, taya and cattaaro are declined in the plural in the three genders; eka, alone of course, having singular forms.

255. Declension of eka, one

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. eko ekaa eka.m
Gen. ekassa ekissaa, ekissaaya ekassa
Dat. ekassa ekissaa, ekissaaya ekassa
Acc. eka.m eka.m eka.m
Ins. ekena ekaaya ekena
Abl. ekasmaa, ekamhaa ekaaya ekasmaa, ekamhaa
Loc. ekasmi.m, ekamhi ekaaya, ekissa.m ekasmi.m, ekamhi
Voc. eka eke eka
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. eke ekaa, ekaayo ekaani
Gen. ekesa.m ekaasa.m ekesa.m
Dat. ekesa.m ekaasa.m ekesa.m
Acc. eke ekaa, ekaayo ekaani
Ins. ekehi, ekebhi ekaahi, ekhaabhi ekehi, ekebhi
Abl. ekehi, ekebhi ekaahi, ekhaabhi ekehi, ekebhi
Loc. ekesu ekaasu ekesu
Voc. eke ekaa, ekaayo ekaani

Remarks. The above declension is chiefly pronominal. (See Pronouns, Chapter IX)

256. Declension of tayo, three

  Plural (No Singular)
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. tayo tisso ti.ni
Gen. ti.n.na.m, ti.n.nanna.m tissanna.m, tissa.m ti.n.na.m, ti.n.nanna.m
Dat. ti.n.na.m, ti.n.nanna.m tissanna.m, tissa.m ti.n.na.m, ti.n.nanna.m
Acc. tayo tisso tii.ni
Ins. tiihi, tiibhi tiihi, tiibhi tiihi, tiibhi
Abl. tiihi, tiibhi tiihi, tiibhi tiihi, tiibhi
Loc. tiisu tiisu tiisu

257. Declension of cattaaro, caturo, four

  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. cattaaro, caturo catasso cattaari
Gen. catunna.m catassanna.m, cattassa.m catunna.m
Dat. catunna.m catassanna.m, cattassa.m catunna.m
Acc. cattaaro, caturo catasso cattaari
Ins. catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi
Abl. catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi
Loc. catuusu catuusu catuusu

258. (a) In composition, the base of tayo, is ti, as, tilokahitada, bestowing benefits on the three worlds.

(b) Not seldom, tri also is met with: trikumbhanagara.m, the "three-Hillock-City" (Rangoon).

(c) The base of cattaaro in composition is catu before a consonant, the consonant being often reduplicated; and catur before a vowel: catumukho, having four faces. catuppado, a quadruped. catuparisa.m, the four assemblies. catura`ngii (catu-r-a`ngii), having four divisions. caturasso (catu-r-asso), having four corners, quadrangular.

259. The Dual has completely disappeared in Paali; the only two vestiges that have come down to us being dve or duve, two, and ubho, both. But even in these two words, the student will remark that the inflection of the plural has almost entirely superseded that of the dual.

260. Dve or duve and ubho, are of the three genders, and used in the plural only.

  Dve, Two Ubho, Both
Nom. dve, duve ubho, ubhe
Gen. dvinna.m, duvinna.m ubhinna.m
Dat. dvinna.m, duvinna.m ubhinna.m
Acc. dve, duve ubho, ubhe
Ins. dviihi, dviibhi ubhohi, ubhobhi, ubhehi, ubhebhi
Abl. dviihi, dviibhi ubhohi, ubhobhi, ubhehi, ubhebhi
Loc. dviisu ubhosu, ubhesu

261. (a) The base of dve, duve in composition is dvi and also di, du and dve: dvijo, twice born, a brahmin. dvijivho, double-tongued, a snake. dvipo, drinking twice, an elephant. dipado, two-legged, a biped. digu.no, two-fold. duvidho, of two kinds. dvebhuumako, having two stories. dvepakkho, two factions or parties.

(b) dva, dvaa are also used as the bases of dve, but chiefly in composition with other numbers: dvattikkhatu.m (dva-ti-khattu.m), two or three times. dvati.msati, thirty two. dvaasa.t.thi, sixty-two. dvaaviisati, twenty-two.

(c) baa is similarly used as a base. baarasa, baadasa, twelve. baaviisati, twenty-two.

262. Pa~nca, five, is, like dve, of the three genders. It is declined as follows:

Nom. pa~nca
Gen. pa~ncanna.m
Dat. pa~ncanna.m
Acc. pa~nca
Ins. pa~ncahi
Abl. pa~ncahi
Loc. pa~ncasu

263. The other numbers up to 18 included, are also of the three genders, and are declined as follows:

Nom., Acc. & Voc. Gen. & Dat. Ins. & Abl. Loc.
six, cha channa.m chahi chasu
seven, satta sattanna.m sattahi sattasu
eight, a.t.tha a.t.thanna.m a.t.thahi a.t.thasu
nine, nava navanna.m navahi navasu
ten, dasa dasanna.m dasahi dasasu

264. The numerals from 11 to 18 are declined in exactly the same way.

265. Here it must be observed that 10 has three forms: dasa, rasa, lasa, the last two being used only in composition with other numerals; .lasa is also found.

266. The numerals from 19 to 99 are feminine; as they are formed by prefixing the numerals from 1 to 9 to the decades, the decades are here given separately.

20. viisati, viisa
30. ti.msati, ti.msa
40. cattaaliisa, cattaalisa, cattaarisa, taalisa, taalisa
50. pa~n~naasa, pa.n.naasa
60. sa.t.thi
70. sattati
80. asiti
90. navuti

267. The numerals ending in i are declined like the feminines in i (jaati, ratti).

268. Those in a take in the Nom. sometimes the form in aa, like ka~n~naa, but usually they assume in the Nom. neuter form in a.m.

269. The following will serve as a model for the declension of numerals from 20 to 99:

Declension of viisati, 20

Nom. & Voc. Acc. Gen. & Dat. Ins. & Abl. Loc.
1st form: viisa.m, viisa visa.m visaaya visaaya visaaya, visaaya.m
2nd form: viisati viisati.m visatiyaa visatiyaa visatiyaa, visatiya.m

Remarks. Numerals in i follow the 2nd form and those in a the 1st form.

270. To express full decades but one, as 19, 29, 39, etc: ekuuna (eka, one + uuna, deficient by) is prefixed to the decades, as: ekuunaviisati, 19, viz., 20 deficient by one. ekuunati.msa, 29 viz. 30 deficient by one, etc.

271. The very high numerals as, ko.ti, ten millions, pako.ti, one hundred billions, etc., are declined like viisati.

272. Sata.m 100, sahassa.m 1000, lakha.m 100,000, are neuter substantives, and therefore declined as such on the model of ruupa.m (124).

273. (II) Ordinals

274. The ordinals are formed from the cardinals, from 5 upwards, by means of the suffix ma:

Cardinals Ordinals
5. pa~nca pa~ncama, 5th
6. cha chama, 6th
7. satta sattama, 7th
8. a.t.tha a.t.thama, 8th, etc.

275. Ordinals 5th, 6th and 7th, have two forms: ...

5th, pa~ncatha, pa~ncama
6th, cha.t.tha, cha.t.thama
7th, sattha, sattama

276. From 5 upwards, the ordinals form their feminine by means of suffix ii (181, 2) and their neuter is formed in a.m. They are therefore declined like devo, nadii and ruupa.m.

Masc. Nom. Fem. Nom. Neut. Nom.
pa~ncamo pa~ncamii pa~ncama.m
cha.t.thamo cha.t.thamii cha.t.thama.m
sattamo sattamii sattama.m
a.t.thamo a.t.thamii a.t.thama.m, etc.

277. From 11 upwards, however, the cardinals themselves are not seldom used as ordinals; so that we have the choice of two forms, and can say either,

ekaarasa, 11th, or ekaarasama, 11th.
pa~ncadasa, 15th, or pa~ncadasama, 15th.
catuviisati 24th, or catuviisatima, 24th, etc.

278. The first four ordinals are as follows:

Masc. Nom. Fem. Nom. Neut. Nom.
pa.thamo pa.thamaa pa.thama.m
dutiyo dutiyaa dutiya.m
tatiyo tatiyaa tatiya.m
catuttho catutthaa catuttha.m

Remarks. They are consequently declined like deva, ka~n~naa and ruupa.m.

279. (III) Adverbial derivatives from numerals

280. Many important adverbs are derived from numerals by means of some suffixes.

281. By means of suffix dhaa are formed adverbs signifying: ways, times, fold and sometimes kinds.


ekadhaa, once.
dvidhaa, in two ways; in two; of two kinds.
tidhaa, in three ways; three-fold, in three parts.

282. The word gu.na, though not a suffix, is often employed like dhaa with the meanings of times, fold. In the sense of times, it generally takes the neuter form in a.m.


dasagu.na.m, ten times; or ten-fold.
tigu.na.m, three times; or three-fold.
catugu.na.m, four times; or, four-fold.

Remarks. In the sense of fold, the compound being an adjective, is treated as such and is declined like deva, ka~n~naa and ruupa.m.

283. dhaa is also used in the same way after a few adjectives:
bahudhaa, in many ways.
anekadhaa, in more than one way.

284. Distributive adverbs are formed from numerals by means of suffix so (Sansk. ïas).


ekaso, one by one.
pa~ncaso, five by five.

285. From khattu.m, multiplicative adverbs are formed.


dvikkhattu.m, twice.
sattakkhattu.m, seven times.
satasahassakkhattu.m, one hundred thousand times.

286. The two following suffixes, from substantives and adjectives ka and ya, form collective nouns and adjectives.


catukka, four-fold, consisting of four, a collection of four things; a place where four roads meet.
dvaya, of two sorts, consisting of two a pair.
dvika, duka, consisting of two, a pair.
tika, taya, tayi, consisting of three, a triad, etc.

287. There is an adverb, meaning once, at once, never used in composition with numerals, it is saki.m, (Sansk, sak.rt). When used before words beginning with a vowel it sometimes takes the forms sakid or sakad.


saki.m passanto, seeing (him) once.
saki.m yeva, at once, simultaneously.
sakid eva, at once, simultaneously.
sakadaagamii (aagami), returning once only.