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A Practical Grammar of the Pāli Language
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language

Chapter X


354. Conjugation, or the inflection of verbs, consists in making the verbal root undergo certain changes in form, by the addition to it of certain prefixes and terminations to show the difference of voice, of tense, of mode, of person, and of number.

355. There are two voices:

  1. The Active, called in Paali: parassapada (lit. a word for another) and
  2. The Reflective in Paali called attanopada (lit. a word for one's self).

356. The active voice, or parassapada may be said to be used, when the fruit or consequence of the action; expressed by the verb passes on to another person or thing other than the subject or agent; the reflective voice or attanopada, is used when the fruit or the consequence expressed by the verb accrues to no one else but to the the agent. The reflective voice merely implies that the agent has the ability to do that action or suffer that state which is denoted by the root.

357. It must here be remarked that the reflective voice has lost very much of its importance, and that the distinction between active and reflective has been almost if not altogether effaced, and that the choice between the active or reflective is mostly determined now by metrical exigencies. It therefore follows the reflective voice or the "Middle Voice," as it is also called, is confined to poetry, and is but rarely found in prose.

358. There are six tenses:

  1. The Present; and its preterite.
  2. The Imperfect; used originally to express a definite past.
  3. The Aorist, expressing time recently past. This is now the only true past tense in Paali, and is very extensively used.
  4. The Perfect, originally an indefinite past. This tense is of very rare occurrence.
  5. The Future, expressing future time in general and its preterite.
  6. The Conditional, expressing future time relatively to something that is past, and an action unable to be performed on account of some difficulty in the way of its execution.

359. There are three modes of the present tense:

  1. The Indicative.
  2. The Imperative.
  3. The Optative.

360. The present, the perfect and the future tenses, have each a Participle, called after them:

  1. The Present Participle.
  2. The Perfect Participle.
  3. The Future Participle.

Remarks. The perfect participle, mostly formed from the root, is principally of past and passive meaning; sometimes also of neuter meaning.

361. There is also a Participle of Necessity, also called Future Passive Participle and Potential Participle, which is but a verbal adjective.

362. According to the base on which they are formed the present and the future participles may be active or passive in sense.

363. There are two verbal nouns:

  1. The Infinitive, in the Accusative case-form; sometimes (rarely), in the Dative case-form; which has nothing to do with the conjugation and the tense systems; and has the sense of a regular infinitive.
  2. A Gerund so-called, which is but the case-form of a derivative noun having the force of an absolute participle.

364. There are two numbers: the Singular and the Plural.

365. There are three persons: the First, Second and Third Persons.

366. From what has been said above, it will be seen that the tenses group themselves into four well defined classes or systems.

(1) The Present System, composed of:

  1. The Present Indicative, and its preterite.
  2. The Imperfect.
  3. The Present Imperative.
  4. The Present Optative.
  5. The Present Participle.

(2) The Aorist System, composed of:

  1. The Aorist Tense only.

(3) The Perfect System, comprising:

  1. The Perfect Tense.
  2. The Perfect Participle.

(4) The Future System composed of:

  1. The Future Tense.
  2. The Conditional.
  3. The Future Participle.

367. There is a division of the tenses, more fictitious than real, into "Special Tenses" and "General Tenses". From such a division, one would be inclined to think that the former are formed on a special base or modified form of the root, and the latter, therefore, from the root itself. But such in fact is not the case, for it will later on be remarked that the special and the general tenses not seldom interchange their bases.

368. As, however the Present System is by far the most important, and as it is made the basis of the different conjugations or classifications of verbs, we will in the next section explain the formation of the several stems or bases of the Present System (otherwise called "Special Tenses") of which there are ten, divided into seven conjugations. These bases are in consequence called "Special Bases".

369. The conjugation of verbs is furthermore divided into Primitive and Derivative Conjugations.

(A) Primitive Verbs

Formation of the Special Bases of the Present System


370. The verbs of the First Conjugation form the Present stem or base in four ways, as follows:

(1) The roots end in a consonant, and, to form the base or stem, simply add a.

Roots Bases
√pac, to cook paca
√labh, to obtain labha
√mar, to die mara
√rakkh, to keep, guard rakkha
√yaac, to entreat, beg yaaca
√vad, to tell, say vada
√tar, to cross tara
√jiiv, to live jiiva
√bhar, to carry bhara

371. To this division belong those roots which, ending in a consonant preceded by i or u, sometimes do, and sometimes do not strengthen the vowel (i, u).


(Without Strengthening)

Roots Bases
√tud, to know, destroy tuda
√phus, to touch phusa
√likh, to write likha
√nud, to remove nuda

(With Strengthening)

Roots Bases
√gup, to keep, watch gopa
√subh, to shine, be beautiful sobha

(2) The roots of this division do not take the conjugation sign a: the personal endings of the tenses are added directly to the root.

Roots Bases
√yaa, to go yaa
√vaa, to blow vaa
√.thaa, to stand .thaa
√khyaa, to tell (with prefix aa) khyaa
√bruu, to speak bruu

Remarks. (a) To this class may be said to belong the roots ending in i, ii or u, uu which, when a is added to them, do not take their semi-vowel substitute, but are merely gunated (109, 104-107).

Roots Bases
√nii, to lead ne (or naya) (3rd Division)
√ji, to conquer je (or java) (3rd Division)
√huu, to be ho
√ku, to sound ko (or kava) (3rd Division)

Remarks. (b) To these transformed roots, which at first sight appear to be pure roots, the personal endings are added, as after the roots: yaa, vaa, .thaa, etc., (2nd Division).
(c) So that these roots assume two special bases: one in e or aya, and one in o or ava, according as the last vowel is i, ii or u, uu.

(3) The roots of this division end in i, ii or u, uu which, before the conjugational sign a, are respectively changed to ay and av (103-110).

Roots Bases
√nii, to lead, guide (√nii + a =) naya
√ji, to conquer (√ji + a =) jaya
√bhuu, to be (√bhuu + a =) bhava
√ku, to make a sound (√ku + a =) kava
√khi, to govern (√khi + a =) khaya

(See above no. 2 Remarks (a, c)).

(4) The verbs of the Fourth Division of the First Cojugation form their special bases by reduplicating the root.

Roots Bases
√.thaa, to stand ti.t.thaa
√daa, to give dadaa
√dhaa, to hold dadhaa
√ha, to forsake jahaa
√hu, to sacrifice juho

Remark. These retain the long aa before the personal endings of the Present and of the Imperative.

372. The rules of reduplication are as follows:

  1. Reduplication consists in the doubling of the first consonant in a root together with a vowel that follows it. If the root begins with a vowel, that vowel alone is reduplicated.
  2. A gutteral is reduplicated by its corresponding palatal.
  3. An unaspirate is always reduplicated by an unaspirate (See chart para 9) which means that an unaspirate is reduplicated by itself.
  4. The initial h of a root, is reduplicated by j.
  5. An aspirate is reduplicated by its unaspirate.
  6. v is generally reduplicated by u.
  7. A long vowel is shortened in the reduplicated syllable. That is:
    1. a or aa takes a in reduplication, and sometimes:
    2. i or ii takes i.
    3. u or uu takes u but sometimes a.
    4. i is occasionally changed to e.
    5. u is changed to o, sometimes.
    6. a of the root, following the first consonant, is sometimes lengthened to aa.
Simple roots Reduplicated bases
√dhaa, to hold (Rule 372, 5, 7-a) dadhaa
√daa, to give (Rule 372, 3, 7-a) dadaa
√kit, to cure (Rule 372, 2, 7-b; 88) cikiccha
√gam, to go (Rule 372, 2, 7-a) jagama
√kha`n, to dig (Rule 372, 2, 7-a) cakhana
√har, to bear (Rule 372, 4, 7-a, f) jahaara
√has, to laugh (Rule 372, 4, 7-a, f) jahaasa
√budh, to know (Rule 372, 3, 7-e) bubodha
√suc, to mourn (Rule 372, 3, 7-e) susoca
√pac, to cook (Rule 372, 3, 7-a) papaca
√chid, to cut (Rule 372, 5, 7-d) cicheda
√bhuu, to be (Rule 372, 5, 7-c) babhuva
√vas, to live (Rule 372, 6, 7-f) uvaasa
√vad, to say (Rule 372, 6, 7-f) uvaada
√ah, to say (Rule 372, 1; 22) aaha

Remarks. The above rules of reduplication apply as well to the Perfect Tense; but as the Perfect is very seldom used in Paali, the student ought not to assume existence of any form unless it be actually found in the course of his reading.

373. The verbs of the Second Conjugation form their special bases by inserting niggahiita before the last consonant of the root, and then adding a, as in the First Conjugation. Niggahita follows the usual rules of sandhi (39).

Roots Bases
√rudh, to restrain rundha
√muc, to free mu~nca
√chid, to cut chinda
√lip, to smear limpa
√bhuj, to eat bhu~nja
√pis, to grind pimsa

374. The sign of the Third Conjugation is ya, which is added to the root; the rules for the assimilation of ya (70 ff.), are regularly applied.

Roots   Bases
√yudh, to fight √yudh + ya (74, vi) = yujjha
√budh, to know √budh + ya (74, vi) = bujjha
√pas, to see √pas + ya (76, i) = passa
√dus, to vex √dus + ya (76, i) = dussa
√gaa, to sing √gaa + ya = gaaya
√jhaa, to think √jhaa + ya = jhaaya

Remark. The roots of this conjugation ending in long aa are sometimes given under the form of e also; thus:
ge = gaa, to sing.
ve = vaa, to weave.
jhe = jhaa, to think, meditate.

375. The forms in aa (gaa, etc.) belong, as we have already seen, to the Third Conjugation, but those in e belong to the First Conjugation (3rd Division), and form their bases by the addition of a. Thus:
ge + a = gaaya.
ve + a = vaaya.

Remark. Note well that final e + a = aaya with lengthening of the first a.

376. The verbs of the Fourth Conjugation form the Present stem or base by the addition of .nu, or .na if the root end in a vowel; but u.nu, or u.naa, if the root end in a consonant.


(a) The u of .nu and u.nu may be strengthened to o.

(b) This u or o may, before a personal ending beginning with a vowel, be changed to va (27ii a, b).

Roots Bases
√su, to hear. su.naa or su.no.
√aap (with prefix pa = paap) to attain. paapu.naa or paapu.no.

(c) The long aa of .naa, u.naa is retained before the personal endings of the Present and of the Imperative except the 3rd Person Plural. Occasionally, however, it is found shortened.

(d) In a few cases the .n is de-lingualized and changed to the dental nasal, viz., n, following in this the analogy of the Sanskrit.

377. Verbs of the Fifth Conjugation form their bases by adding naa to the root, which as a rule ends in a vowel.


(a) If the final vowel of the root is long (2), it is shortened before naa.

(b) Under the influence of a preceding Sanskrit r or ṛ, this naa is sometimes lingualised and becomes .naa.

Roots Bases
√ci, to heap, collect. cinaa.
√kii, to buy, barter. (Sansk. krii) kii.naa, or ki.naa.
√dhuu, to shake. dhunaa.
√ji, to conquer, win. jinaa.
√as, to eat. asnaa.
√jaa, to know. jaanaa.
√yu, to mix, associate. yunaa.

Remarks. The long aa of naa is retained in all the persons of the Present and Imperative, except in the 3rd Plural. The short form in na is also often found.

378. The verbs of the Sixth Conjugation form their special bases by adding u to the root; this u generally strengthens to o, which before an ending beginning with a vowel is changed to va (27).

Roots Bases
√kar, to do, make. karo.
√tan, to stretch, expand. tano.
√ku.n, to make a sound. ku.no.
√van, to beg, ask for. vano.


(a) The conjugation of √kar is highly irregular and formed on several bases and will be given in full later on.

(b) The roots belonging to this conjugation are remarkably few.

379. The verbs of the Seventh Conjugation form their special bases by adding to the root aya, which by contraction may be replaced by e. The forms in e are more commonly met than those in aya. (Compare: 1st Conjugation, 3rd Division).

Remarks. The following should be carefully noted:

(a) When the radical vowel is u, it is changed to o, provided it be not followed by a Conjunct Consonant.

(b) Radical a, if followed by a single consonant, is generally lengthened, in some cases, however, it remains short.

(c) It will be perceived from the above that the verbs of the Seventh Conjugation have two bases: one in e and one in aya (Compare: 1st Conjugation, 3rd Division).

Root Base
√cur, to steal. core or coraya.
√gup, to guard, shine. gope or gopaya.
√pus, to nourish. pose or posaya.
√bandh, to bind. bandhe or bandhaya.
√tiir, to finish, accomplish. tire or tiiraya.
√cha.d.d, to throw away. cha.d.de or cha.d.daya.
√kath, to say. kathe or kathaya.

380. A great many roots can form their bases according to two or three or even most conjugations, in which case the meaning of each special base from the same root, differs, in most instances, from the original meaning of the root itself. This will be better understood by several examples. The numbers after the bases refer to the conjugations.

Roots   Bases
subh sobha (1), to shine. √subh + a = sobha.
subh sumbha (2), strike. √subh + .m + a = sumbha.
kus kosa (1), to call, cut. √kus + a = kosa.
kus kussa (3), to embrace. √kus + ya, kusya = kussa (76).
tik teka (1), to go. √tik + a = teka.
tik tiku`naa (4), to oppress. √tik + u`naa = tiku`naa.
rii re (1), to expand. √rii + a = re.
rii rii.naa (5), to inform. √rii + .naa = rii.naa.
lii laya (1) to liquify. √lii + a = laya.
lii liinaa (5), to approach. √lii + naa = liinaa.
tan tana (1), to aid, assist. √tan + a = tana.
tan tano (6), to expand, stretch. √tan + u (=o) = tano.
va.d.dh va.d.dha (1), to grow, increase. √va.d.dh + a = va.d.dha.
va.d.dh va.d.dhe (7), to pour from one vessel into another. √va.d.dh + e = va.d.dhe.
vid vida (1), to know. √vid + a = vida.
vid vijja (3), to be, have. √vid + ya = vidya = vijja.
vid vind (2), to find, get, enjoy. √vid + .m + a = vinda.
vid vede, vedaya (7), to feel, speak. √vid + e = vede or vedaya.

Conjugation of the Present System

First Conjugation

381. The bases of the verbs having been formed according to the rules given in the preceding paragraphs, there only remains to add to them the appropriate Personal Endings. We now give the Personal Endings for the tense of the Present-System, which is by far the most important, omitting the Present Participle, which will be treated in a special chapter.

Present Indicative

  Present Active Voice Present Reflective Voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st Person mi ma e mhe
2nd Person si tha se vhe
3rd Person ti nti te nte, re


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. a, a.m amhaa i.m mhase
2. o ttha se vha.m
3. a u ttha tthu.m


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. mi ma e aamase
2. hi tha ssu vho
3. tu ntu ta.m nta.m


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. eyyaami eyyaama eyya.m eyyaamhe
2. eyyaasi eyyaatha etho eyyavho
3. eyya eyyu.m etha era.m


(a) In the singular Optative active voice, e may be substituted for eyyaami, eyyaasi and eyya.

(b) The vowel of the base is dropped before a personal ending beginning with a vowel.

(c) Before mi and ma of the Present Indicative, the a of the base is lengthened.

(d) In the 2nd person singular active of the Imperative, hi may be dropped and the base or stem alone used. Note that before hi the a of the base is lengthened.

382. As has been said above (370) the first conjugation has four divisions. The roots ending in a consonant and adding a to form the base, are extremely numerous.

383. The following is the paradigm of √pac, to cook.

Present Indicative

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. pacaami, I cook pacaama, we cook pace, I cook pacaamhe, we cook
2. pacasi, thou cook pacatha, you cook pacase, thou cook pacavhe, you cook
3. pacati, he cooks pacanti, they cook pacate, he cooks pacante, pacare, they cook

I cooked, etc.

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. apaca, apaca.m apacamhaa apaci.m apacaamhase, apacamhase
2. apaco apacattha apacase apacavha.m
3. apaca apacu apacattha apacatthu.m

Let me cook, etc.

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. pacaami pacaama pace pacaamase
2. pacaahi, paca pacatha pacassu pacavho
3. pacatu pacantu pacata.m pacanta.m

I may, should, can, could cook. etc.

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. paceyyaami, pace paceyyaama paceyya.m paceyyaamhe
2. paceyyaasi, pace paceyyaatha pacetho paceyyavho
3. paceyya, pace paceyyu.m pacetha pacera.m


(a) The augment a of the Imperfect may be omitted, so that we also have the forms: paca, paca.m, paco, etc.

(b) The final vowel of the 3rd person singular active may also be long: apacaa, apacuu.

384. The above personal-endings of the special tenses are affixed to the special base of the seven conjugations, after the model of √pac.

385. Roots of the 1st conjugation in i, ii and u, uu, require no explanations. The base being obtained, (371, 3) the above endings are merely added to it.


Present Active

  √bhuu, to be, base: bhava √nii, to lead, base: naya
  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. bhavaami bhavaama nayaami nayaama
2. bhavasi bhavatha nayasi nayatha
3. bhavati bhavanti nayati nayanti

Present Reflective

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. bhave bhavaamhe naye nayaamhe
2. bhavase bhavavhe nayase nayavhe
3. bhavate bhavante nayate nayante

Imperfect Active

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. abhava, abhava.m abhavamhaa anaya, anaya.m anayamhaa
2. abhavo abhavattha anayo anayattha
3. abhava abhavu anaya anayu

Imperfect Reflective

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. abhavi.m abhavaamhase anayi.m anayaamhase
2. abhavase abhavavha.m anayase anayavha.m
3. abhavattha abhavatthu.m anayattha anayatthu.m

Imperative Active

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. bhavaami bhavaama nayaami nayaama
2. bhavaahi, bhava bhavatha nayaahi, naya nayatha
3. bhavatu bhavantu nayatu nayantu

Imperative Reflective

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. bhave bhavaamase naye nayaamase
2. bhavassu bhavavho nayassu nayavho
3. bhavata.m bhavanta.m nayata.m nayanta.m

Optative Active

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. bhaveyyaami, bhave bhaveyyaama nayeyyaami, naye nayeyyaama
2. bhaveyyaasi, bhave bhaveyyaatha nayeyyaasi, naye nayeyyaatha
3. bhaveyya, bhave bhaveyyu.m nayeyya, naye nayeyyu.m

Optative Reflective

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. bhaveyya.m bhaveyyaamhe nayeyyam nayeyyaamhe
2. bhavetho bhaveyyavho nayetho nayeyyavho
3. bhavetha bhavera.m nayetha nayera.m

386. The roots of the first conjugation which take the personal endings directly (371, 2) are not numerous.

387. It must be here noted that in Paali, all the roots are not conjugated in the Active and the Reflective voices for all the tenses. Especially so is the case with the roots that take the personal endings directly.

  √yaa, to go √vaa, to blow √bhaa, to shine
  Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. yaami yaama vaami vaama bhaami bhaama
2. yaasi yaatha vaasi vaatha bhaasi bhaatha
3. yaati yanti vaati vanti bhaati bhanti

Remarks. Before nti, 3rd plural, aa of the root is shortened.

388. In the Optative, a y is inserted before the personal endings: yaayeyyaami, yaapeyya, vaayeyya, vaaye, etc.

389. Some roots of this class are gu.nated (110) generally in the reflective and 3rd plural Present active: √bruu, to speak.

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. bruumi bruuma brave bruumhe
2. bruusi bruutha bruuse bruuvhe
3. bruuti bravanti brute bravante

Remarks. In the plural 1st and 2nd persons reflective, the u is sometimes found shortened.

390. Other roots of this conjugation are:

(a) Roots of this class may like others belonging to different conjugations, be compounded with verbal prefixes.

(b) the aa of √.thaa is shortened to a when the root is reduplicated (1st Conjugation, 4th division).
(c) √.thaa, in composition with Verbal Prefixes, often assumes the special base .thaha.

391. Similarly, √dhaa, which at first sight would appear to belong to the 1st conjugation, 2nd division, de-aspirates itself into daha, and migrates into the √pac class (370, 1). Moreover it is used only with verbal prefixes. This root also belongs to the reduplicating-class (372) and consequently has also the base dadhaa. A base dhe, of the same root, is extensively used.


392. Some roots belonging to the reduplicating class (371, 4th Division), also take the personal endings directly in the Present tense and the lmperative.*

*Throughout all this chapter many Paali grammars have been consulted, such as: Saddaniiti, Niruttidiipanii, Galonpyan, Akhyaatapadamaala, etc.

393. By false analogy, some roots in i, (371, 3rd division), seem to belong to the class of roots which take the endings directly; but in reality, these roots belong not to the 2nd division, but to the 3rd division, the endings being added, not after the root, but after the strengthened base (105), i or ii having first been changed to e under the influence of a (21, i). Those bases are conjugated exactly like √cur, base core, the paradigm of which is given below. The reflective voice of such roots is formed from the base in aya.


√nii, base: ne or naya


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. nemi nema naye nayaamhe
2. nesi netha nayase nayavhe
3. neti nenti nayate nayante


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. nemi nema naye nayaamase
2. nehi netha nayassu nayavho
3. netu nentu nayata.m nayanta.m

Remark. The Optative may also be formed on the base in ne as:


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. neyyaami neyyaama neyya.m neyyaamhe
2. neyyaasi neyyaatha netho neyyavho
3. neyya neyyu.m nayetha nayera.m

394. Other roots are:

Remark. The most important root of the Root-Class is √as, to be; which is rather defective; it will be given a special chapter (See Defective Verbs).

Reduplicating Class

395. The verbs of this class are characterised by taking a reduplicating syllable: the rules have been given above (372). The conjugation presents no difficulty, e.g. √daa, to give.

Present Active

  Singular Plural
1. dadaami dadaama
2. dadaasi dadaatha
3. dadaati dadanti

Imperfect Active

  Singular Plural
1. adada adadamha
2. adado adadattha
3. adada adadu

Optative Active

  Singular Plural
1. dadeyyaami dadeyyaama
2. dadeyyaasi dadeyyaatha
3. dadeyya, dade dadeyyu.m

Imperative Active

  Singular Plural
1. dadaami dadaama
2. dadaahi, dadaa dadaatha
3. dadaatu dadantu

396. Some tenses of this verb are formed directly from the base; they will be given in their proper place.


(a) Of √daa, we also find the bases dajj and de, formed by false analogy: dajjaami, dajjasi, dajjati, dajjaama, dajjatha, dajjanti, etc., demi, desi, deti; dema, detha, denti, etc.

(b) There is an anomalous form of the singular present very probably formed on the analogy of the plural: dammi, dasi, dati.

(c) The reflective forms do not exist for most of the tenses, only a very few are met with: the first singular and first plural: dade, dadaamase.

(d) In the root √.tha the final aa of the base is preserved long only in the first singular and plural present.

ti.t.thasiti.t.thatha, .thaatha

It will be remarked that .thaatha, 2nd person plural, is formed directly from the root.

The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Conjugations

397. The conjugation of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th classes does not present any difficulty; the personal endings are added as has already been shown for the first conjugation.

Second Conjugation

398. √chid, base: chinda (373), to cut.

  Present Active Present Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. chindaami chindaama chinde chindaamhe
2. chindasi chindatha chindase chindavhe
3. chindati chindanti chindate chindante

399. The other tenses are formed regularly, as: chindeyyaami, chindeyyaasi, chindeyya, or chinde; chindeyyaama, chindaayyatha, chindeyyu.m. And so on for the other tenses.

Remark. The root √rudh, to obstruct, has five bases: rundhati, rundhiti; rundhiiti, rundheti and rundhoti.

Third Conjugation

400. √div, base: dibba (77), to play.

  Present Active Present Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. dibbaami dibbaama dibbe dibbaamhe
2. dibbasi dibbatha dibbase dibbavhe
3. dibbati dibbanti dibbate dibbante

The other tenses are formed regularly, as:
Imperfect: adibba, adibbo, adibba, adibbamhaa, adibbattha, adibbu.
Optative: dibbe, dibbeyya, dibbeyyaami, dibbeyyaasi, etc.

Fourth Conjugation

401. √su, base: su.naa (376), or suno, to hear.

Present Active

  Singular Plural or Singular Plural
1. su.naami su.naama   su.nomi su.noma
2. su.naasi su.naatha su.nosi su.notha
3. su.naati su.nanti su.noti su.nonti, sunvanti


(a) The other tenses are formed on the base: su.naa final aa being dropped before initial i and e, as: su.neyyami, su.neyyaasi etc, su.nissaami, su.nissaama, su.nissasi, etc.

(b) √sak, to be able, belongs to this conjugation, but has developed several bases: sakku.naati with the k doubled; sakkoti, by assimilation (57) sak+no=sakno, sakko+ti=sakkoti. Similarly, there is a form sakkaati obtained by the same process; sak+naa=sakna, sakkaa+ti=sakkaati; and still another form occurs, with short a: sakkati.

(c) √aap, to attain, with prefix pa (pa+aap=paap), shows 3 forms: pappoti, paapu.naati, paapu.noti. √gah, to take, seize has for base: ga.nhaa with metathesis (111, p.35): ga.nhaami, ga.nhaasi, etc.

(d) We have already said that the .n is very often de-lingualised (376, d). That is to say, many of the roots belonging to the 4th conjugation form their bases according to the 9th conjugation of Sanskrit verbs, by adding naa to the root. For instance from √ci, to collect, to heap, we have: cinaati, to gather; ocinaati, ocinati, to pick up, to gather.

Remark that the base may be with short a as well as with long aa and that this is the case with many of the roots of this conjugation, cf. sa~ncinati, sa~ncinoti, sa~ncinaati, to accumulate.

(e) From √bhuu we have a verb abhisambhunati and abhisambhunoti, to obtain. The root of this verb is said by some grammarians to be Sanskrit √bhṛii, but this is most improbable. Some native grammarians give a root sambhuu, found only in the Dhammapada, not perceiving it is merely a compound of prefix sam+√bhu.

Fifth Conjugution

402. √dhuu, to shake; base: dhunaa (377).

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. dhunaami dhunaama dhune dhunaamhe
2. dhunaasi dhunaatha dhunase dhunavhe
3. dhunaati dhunanti dhunate dhunante, dhunare


(a) Other verbs belonging to this class are: √j~naa, jaa, ~naa, to know, base: jaana. √as, to eat, base: asnaa. √mun=√man, to think, base: munaa.

(b) The student will have remarked that the 4th and 5th conjugations very often interchange their bases. This is owing to the false analogy of Sanskrit roots.

Sixth Conjugation

403. √kar, to make, to do; base: karo (378).


  Singular Plural
1. karomi karoma
2. karosi karotha
3. karoti karonti


(a) There are several bases of the root √kar as: karo, kara, kubb; the conjugation of this verb, as already said (378, a) will be given in full in the chapter on Defective Verbs.

√tan, to stretch; base: tano (strong), weak base=tanu.


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. tanomi tanoma tanve (27) tanumhe
2. tanosi tanotha tanuse tanuvhe
3. tanoti tanonti tanute tanvante (27)

(b) The roots belonging to this class are very few.

Seventh Conjugation

404. The roots of the 7th conugation, as has been remarked above (379), have two bases: one in e and one in aya, which are conjugated exactly like the roots of the 1st conjugation, 3rd class, (see 393).

Irregular Bases

Some roots form their special bases according to none of the above given rules; and they are in consequence called irregular. The principal are here given.

√gam, to goSpecial base gaccha.
√yam, to restrainSpecial base yaccha.
√guh, to hideSpecial base guuhe.
√dhaa, to holdSpecial base daha, dhe (391).
√daa, to giveSpecial base dajja.
√jaa, √jan, to be bornSpecial base jaaya.
√paa, to drinkSpecial base piva.
√.da.ms, to biteSpecial base .dasa.
√dhmaa, to blowSpecial base dhama.
√vyadh, (=vadh)Special base vadha.
√sad, to sitSpecial base siida.
√.thaa, to standSpecial base ti.t.thaa.
√is, to wishSpecial base iccha.
√vad, to speak, saySpecial base vajja, vajje, vada, vaade.
√mar, to dieSpecial base miya, miyya, mara.
√gah to take, seizeSpecial base gheppa.*
√gam, to goSpecial base ghamma, gaggha.*
√jir, to gow old, decaySpecial base jiya, jiyya.
√dis, das to seeSpecial base dakkha, daccha.*

*These forms are given by the Saddaniiti and the Akhyatapadamaalaa. They are regularly conjugated like gaccha: ghammaami ghammasi ghammati etc.; ghagghami ghagghasi ghagghati etc.; ghammeyya gagghe gaggheyya etc. The bases dakkha and daccha from √da, √dis are formed on the false analogy of the future base, which we shall see when treating of the future. Most of the changes noticed above correspond to similar changes which occur in the 1st, 4th and 6th conjugations of Sanskrit verbs.

The Aorist

405. The Aorist is the only true past tense in Paali. The personal endings of the Imperfect and those of the Aorist have become hopelessly mixed up and the native grammarians are at a loss to differentiate between the Imperfect and the Aorist; but the Aorist has generally superseded the Imperfect. There are many anomalies which the student cannot possibly understand without a slight knowedge of Sanskrit grammar; he need not however, be detained by these considerations just now. The usual endings of the Imperfect have already been given (381); much will be achieved if he, for the present, devotes his attention to the following paragraphs.

406. The Aorist is supposed to be formed from the root but as a matter of fact, it is formed indifferently either from the root or from the base.

407. The desinences (endings) of the Aorist are:

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. a.m, .m, i.m, a, aa imha, imhaa a imhe
2. i, o, aa ttha se vha.m
3. aa, i, ii u.m, i.msu, uu aa, a tthu.m, atthu.m


(a) The student will remark, on comparing the above endings with those of the Imperfect, that it is difficult to make out the Imperfect from the Aorist (the blending of Imperfect and Aorist is well known to students of Comparative Philology); the only criterion is, that the Imperfect is generally formed on the special base, and the Aorist, on the root. But even this is not an absolute criterion, and the fact remains that these two tenses can scarcely be differentiated.

(b) Of the above endings, however, the most commonly used and most distinctively Aoristic are:

  Singular Plural
1. i.m imha, imhaa
2. i ittha
3. i i.msu, (isu.m)

(c) The nasal of a.m is often omitted, and a alone remains.

(d) The Aorist of the great majority of verbs is formed with the desinences given in (b).

408. The Aorist may be divided into three types:

  1. Radical Aorist
  2. Stem or Base Aorist
  3. Sigmatic Aorist


(a) As its name indicates, the Radical Aorist is formed directly from the root.

(b) The Stem Aorist is formed on the special base.

(c) The Sigmatic Aorist is distinguished by an s that comes between the root and the personal endings given in (407, b).

(i) The Radical Aorist

409. This Aorist is not very common. We will give a few examples. Let it be first remarked that the Aorist may also take the augment a before it, as does the imperfect.

410. From √gam, and √gaa and √guu (subsidiary forms of √gam, to go), we have:


  Singular Plural
1. aga.m, agamaa, agami.m agumha
2. agaa, agamaa aguttha
3. agaa, agami agu.m, agami.msu

(b) √as, to be (with augment a)

  Singular Plural
1. aasi.m aasimha
2. aasi aasittha
3. aasi aasu.m, aasi.msu

411. √.thaa.

  Singular Plural
1. a.t.tha.m a.t.thamha
2. a.t.tho a.t.thattha
3. a.t.tha a.t.tha.msu, a.t.thu.m

Remark. For the doubling of initial .th see 33.

412. From √kar we find: aka.m (1st singular), no doubt formed on the analogy of: akaa (1st, 2nd and 3rd singular); akaa being itself from the Vedic form: akar, the loss of the r is compensated by the lengthening of the final a.

In the 1st singular we also have: akara.m, akari.m.

In the plural: 2. akattha; 3. akaru.m, akaruu, akari.msu.

413. √huu (a form of √bhuu) to be.

3rd singular: ahuu, ahu, and before a vowel, ahud.

1st plural: ahumhaa; 3rd plural: ahu.m.

414. √da.

1st singular: adaa, which is also 2nd and 3rd singular.

In the plural we find: 3rd adu.m, ada.msu, adaasu.m.

415. The augment a is not inseparable from the Aorist, so that we meet with such forms as: gaa=agaa, etc.

(ii) Stem Aorist

416. As has already been said, this aorist is formed on the stem or base, not on the root. The augment may or may not be retained.

√paa, base: piva, to drink.

  Singular Plural
1. pivi.m pivimha
2. pivi pivittha
3. pivi pivi.msu

For the Reflective

  Singular Plural
1. pive pivimhe
2. pivise pivivha.m
3. piva, pivaa pivu, pivu.m, pivi.msu, pivisu.m

417. The great bulk of primitive verbs (369) form their Aorist according to the above (piva); it is therefore extremely common, both with and without the augment; let it be stated once for all that this augment is of much more frequent occurence in prose than in poetry; in the latter its retention or rejection is regulated by metrical exigencies. We will now give a few more examples:

√bhuj, to eat; base: bhu~nja

  Singular Plural
1. bhu~nji.m bhu~nijimha, bhu~njimhaa
2. bhu~nji bhu~njittha
3. bhu~nji bhu~njimsu

√gam, to go; base: gaccha

  Singular Plural
1. gacchi.m gacchimha, gacchimhaa
2. gacchi gacchittha
3. gacchi, ga~nchi gacchi.msu
(iii) Sigmatic Aorist

418. Sigmatic Aorist is formed by inserting s between the radical vowel or the vowel of the base and the personal endings given above (407, b).

419. So that we obtain the following desinences:

  Singular Plural
1. si.m (=s+i.m) simha (=s+imha)
2. si (=s+i) sittha (=s+ittha)
3. si (=s+i) su.m (=s+u.m)

420. As will be readily understood, this formation of the Aorist is used with roots ending in vowels, and the s is inserted to join the endings to the root or to the base. It will be seen lower down, however, that they are added also to some roots ending in a consonant when the s becomes assimilated to that consonant.

421. The sigmatic desinences are used mostly with the Derivative verbs, principally the Causative verbs (See: Derivative Conjugation), which end in the vowel e. The verbs of the 7th conjugation, which also end in e, form their Aorist in the same way.


(Causative Verbs)

422. √haa, to abandon; Causative base: haape.

  Singular Plural
1. haapesi.m haapesimha
2. haapesi haapesittha
3. haapesi haapesu.m

√tas, to tremble; Causative base: taase.

  Singular Plural
1. taasesi.m taasesimha
2. taasesi taasesittha
3. taasesi taasesu.m

Remarks. In the 3rd plural the form in i.msu is also frequent: haapesi.msu. taasesi.msu. (Verbs of the 7th conjugation).

423. √cur, to steal; base: core.

  Singular Plural
1. coresi.m coresimha
2. coresi coresittha
3. coresi coresu.m, coresi.msu

√kath, to tell; base: kathe.

  Singular Plural
1. kathesi.m kathesimha
2. kathesi kathesittha
3. kathesi kathesu.m, kathesi.msu

Remarks. (a) To the base in aya endings given in (407, b) may be added directly without the insertion of sigmatic s, so that we have also:

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. corayi.m corayimha kathayi.m kathayimha
2. corayi corayittha kathayi kathayittha
3. corayi corayu.m, corayi.msu kathayi kathayu.m, kathayi.msu

(b) This holds good for the Causative verbs which have also a base in aya.

424. The sigmatic Aorist desinences are placed after some roots which do not belong to the 7th conjugation or to the derivative verbs:

  1. After roots ending in a vowel, with or without the augment a.
  2. After some roots ending in a consonant, in which case the usual rules of assimilation (85) are strictly applied.
Examples of (i)

Remark. From an illusory √kaa (=√kar, to do), we find: akaasi.m, akaasi, akaasimha, etc. From √~naa, to know: a~n~naasi.m, a~n~naasi, a~n~naasimha, etc.

Examples of (ii)

425. At a first reading, the student had perhaps better leave unnoticed the few references to Sanskrit grammar which will be found in the next few paragrahs. Let him merely assume the forms as they are given: the more advanced student ought, of course, to read them with attention.

426. The s (initial) of Sigmatic desinences, as above given (419), assimilates itself to the last consonant of the root according to the usual rules of assimilation:

  1. From √dis=(Sanskrit)√dṛï, we find addakki=(Sanskrit)adrak-ṣ-is. The following forms are also found: addakkhii, adakkhi, dakkhi.
  2. From √sak, to be able=(Sans)√ïak, we have sakkhi, asakkhi; Sanskrit=ïak-ṣ-is.
  3. √kus, to revile=(Sanskrit)√kruï, gives akkocchi, but akkosi, without the sigmatic s, is also met with.
  4. √bha~nj, to break, gives Aorist bha`nki.

Remark. The above examples will, I think, be sufficient to make the student understand the nature of the changes which occur in the formation of the Sigmatic Aorist when the roots end in a consonant; this consonant is generally s (=Sanskrit ï) and sometimes j. In Sanskrit, final ï (=Paali s) is regularly changed to k before the initial s of verbal endings thus giving the group kṣa, which in Paali becomes kkha. Again, by another rule of Sanskrit phonetics, final j becomes g, and as no word can end in a mute sonant, this g is changed to its corresponding surd, that is to k. This class of the Sigmatic Aorist, however, is not numerous.

System of the Perfect

427. As has been seen, the Perfect system consists of the Perfect tense and the Perfect participle. The participle will be treated of in the chapter on Participles.

428. The Perfect is characterised by the reduplication of the root. The rules have already been given (372) and should now be read over carefully.

429. The endings are:


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. a mha i mhe
2. e ttha ttho vho
3. a u ttha re

(a) Roots ending in a consonant insert an before the above endings beginning with a consonant.
(b) The Perfect is of very rare occurence.

430. √pac; Perfect base: papac.


  Singular Plural
1. papaca papacimha
2. papace papacittha
3. papaca papacu


  Singular Plural
1. papaci papacimhe
2. papacittho papacivho
3. papacittha papacire

√bhuu; Perfect base: babhuuv.


  Singular Plural
1. babhuuva babhuuvimha
2. babhuuve babhuuvittha
3. babhuuva babhuuvu


  Singular Plural
1. babhuuvi babhuuvimhe
2. babhuuvittho babhuuvivhe
3. babhuuvittha babhuuvire

The Future System

431. This system includes the Future, the Conditional and the Future participle. The participle will be considered in a special chapter.

432. The Future system has for special characteristic the sign: ssa inserted between the root and the personal endings.

(a) The Future system is frequently formed on the Present base.
(b) The vowel i is often inserted between the ssa and the root or base; in this case the final vowel of the root or base is dropped.
(c) When the ssa is added directly to a root ending in a consonant, the same changes which occur in the Aorist occur also in the Future system, through the assimilation of the initial s of ssa.

433. The personal endings for the Future are:

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. mi ma .m mhe
2. si tha se vhe
3. ti nti te nte, re

(a) It will be seen that in the active the endings are the same as those of the present indicative. (381)
(b) Before mi, ma and mhe, the a of ssa is lengthened.


434. (i) without connecting vowel i.

(a) √i, to go; special base: e (390); future base: essa.

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. essaami essaama essa.m essaamhe
2. essasi essatha essase essavhe
3. essati essanti essate essante

√nii to lead; special base: ne (371, 3); future base: nessa.

Singular Plural
nessaami nessaama
nessasi nessatha
nessati nessanti, ...etc.

(b) √.thaa, to stand.

Singular Plural
.thassaami .thassaama
.thassasi .thassatha
.thassati .thassanti, ...etc.

Remarks. In the above, ssa is added directly to the root; for the shortening of radical a see (34).

Again: √daa, to give.

Singular Plural
dassaami dassaama
dassasi dassatha
dassati dassanti, ...etc.

(ii) with connecting vowel i.

(c) √bhuu, to be; special base: bhava; future base: bhavissa.

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. bhavissaami bhavisssaama bhavissa.m bhavissaamhe
2. bhavissasi bhavissatha bhavissase bhavissavhe
3. bhavissati bhavissanti bhavissate bhavisante

(iii) with assimilation of ssa

(d) √bhuj, to eat, gives bhokkha as future base. (Sanskrit √bhuj = bhok + ṣya = bhokṣya) and we have: bhokkhati, bhokkhate, bhokkha.m, etc.

√chid. to cut, gives: checcha (Sanskrit √chid = chet + ṣya = cetṣya) then: checchaami, checchasi, checchati, etc.

√dis, to see, gives a Future: dakkha (Sanskrit √dṛc = drak + ṣya = drakṣya) from this we find - dakkhati, but more frequently dakkhiti. Similarly from the root √sak, to be able, is obtained sakkhiti.

435. A double Future is also found formed from bases like bhokkha, dakka, which, as has been just now explained are already Future, by adding to them ssa with the connection vowel -i.


√sak; future base: sakkha; sakkhissaami, sakkhissasi, sakkhissati, sakkhissaama, etc.

436. From hoti, the contracted form of bhavati, to be, we find the following numerous forms for the Future:


  1. hemi, hehaami, hohaami, hessaami, hehissaami, hohissaami. I shall be.
  2. hesi. hehisi, hohisi, hessasi, hehissasi, hohissasi. Thou will be.
  3. heti, hehiti, hohiti, hessati, hehissati, hohissati. He will be.


  1. hema, hehaama, hohaama, hessaama, hehissaama, hohissaama. We shall be.
  2. hetha, hehitha, hohitha, hessatha, hehissatha, hohissatha. You will be.
  3. henti, hehinti, hohinti, hessanti; hehissanti hohissanti. They will be.

√kar, to do, gives:

  Singular Plural
1. kaahaami. I shall do. kaahaama. We shall do.
2. kaahasi, kaahisi. Thou wilt do. kaahatha. You will do.
3. kaahati, kaahiti. He will do. kaahanti, kaahinti. They will do.
The Conditional

437. The Conditional takes the augment a before the root.

438. The personal endings are as follows:

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. ssa ssamhaa ssa.m ssaamhase
2. sse, ssa, ssasi ssatha ssase ssavhe
3. ssaa, ssa, ssati ssa.msu ssatha ssi.msu

Remark. The above endings are generally joined to the root or the base by means of the connecting vowel i.

√pac, to cook:

  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. apacissa.m apacissamhaa apacissa.m apacissaamhase
2. apacisse, apacissa, apacissi apacissatha apacissase apacissavhe
3. apacissaa, apacissa, apacissati apacissa.msu apacissatha apacissi.msu

(a) The conditional may be translated by "if I could cook," or " If I should cook," etc.
(b) The conditional is not very frequently used.

The Participles

Present Participle Active

439. All participles are of the nature of verbal adjectives, and must agree with their nouns, in number, gender and case.

440. The terminations of the present participle active are: nta, a.m or .m; nta and .m are added to the base, a.m is added to the root.

Root Base Present Participle Active Base  
√pac, to cook paca paca.m, pacanta cooking
√kar, to do kara kara.m, karonta doing
√chid, to cut chinda chinda.m, chindanta cutting
√bha.n, to say bha.na bha.na.m, bha.nanta saying
√bhuu, to be bhava bhava.m, bhavanta being
√paa, to drink piva piva.m, pivanta drinking

441. Verbal bases ending in e (1st Conj. 3rd Division; 7th Conj. and causal bases. See "Derivative or secondary conjugation") which have also another base in aya take only the termination nta after the base in e, and both nta and .m after the base in aya.


1st and 7th Conjugations

Root Base Present Participle Active Base
√cur, to steal core, coraya corenta, coraya.m, corayanta
√kath, to tell kathe, kathaya kathenta, kathaya.m, kathayanta
√nii, to lead ne, naya nenta, naya.m, nayanta
√ji, to conquer je, jaya jenta, jaya.m, jayanta


Root Causal Base Present Participle Active Base
√dhar to hold dhaare, dhaaraya dhaarenta, dhaaraya.m, dhaarayanta
dhaaraape, dhaaraapaya dhaaraapenta, dhaaraaya.m, dhaaraapayanta
√mar, to die maare, maaraya maarenta, maaraya.m, maarayanta
maaraape, maaraapaya maaraapenta, maaraapaya.m, maaraapayanta
√chid, to cut chede, chedaya chedenta, chedaya.m, chedayanta
chedaape, chedaapaya chedaapenta, chedaapaya.m, chedaapayanta

442. Bases in .naa, no, u.naa, u.no (4th Conj.) and naa (5th Conj.) generally take the termination nta.

Root Base Present Participle Active Base
√su, to hear su.naa, su.no su.nanta, su.nonta
√kii, to buy ki.naa ki.nanta

443. The stem or base of this Present Participle is in at, or ant as:

Root Present Participle Stem Nom. Singular Masculine
√pac pacat, pacant paca.m, pacanto
√car carat, carant cara.m, caranto
√bha.n bha.nat, bha.nant bha.na.m, bha.nanto

444. The feminine is formed by adding ii to the stems or bases in at and nta.

445. The neuter is in .m like the masculine.

Root Stem Masculine Feminine Neuter
√pac pacat paca.m pacatii paca.m
pacant pacanto pacantii pacanta.m
√chid chindat chinda.m chindatii chinda.m
chindant chindanto chindantii chindanta.m

446. These participles are declined like mahaa (226) in the masculine, feminine and neuter.

The Present Participle may often be translated by "when ..., while ..." etc.

Reflective Participle

447. The Reflective Participle is formed by the addition of maana to the base. It is declined like purisa, ka~n~naa, and ruupa.m.


Reflective Participle

Root Masculine Feminine Neuter
√pac pacamaano pacamaanaa pacamaana.m
√car caramaano caramaanaa caramaana.m
√daa dadaamaano dadaamaanaa dadaamaana.m
√su su.namaano su.namaanaa su.namaana.m

448. Another Reflective Participle, much less frequent than the above, is formed by adding aana to the root. It is declined like that in maana.


Reflective Participle

Root Masculine Feminine Neuter
√pac pacaano pacaanaa pacaana.m
√car caraano caraanaa caraana.m
√daa dadaano dadaanaa dadaana.m

Remarks. As may be seen from the last example, dadaana, this participle may also be formed from the base.

The Future Participle

449. The Future Participle is either active or reflective.

  1. In the active, it takes the endings of the Present Participle active, nta, .m (or a.m), and is declined like mahaa.
  2. In the reflective, the endings are maana and aana, and it is declined like purisa, ka~n~naa and ruupa.m.
  3. All these endings are added to the future base.

(i) Future Participle Active

Root Masculine Feminine Neuter
√pac pacissa.m pacissatii pacissa.m
pacissanto pacissantii pacissanta.m
√car carissa.m carissatii carissa.m
carissanto carissantii carissanta.m
√su su.nissa.m su.nissatii su.nissa.m
su.nissanto su.nissantii su.nissanta.m

(ii) Future Participle Reflective

Root Masculine Feminine Neuter
√pac pacissamaano pacissamaa.na pacissamaana.m
pacissaano pacissaanaa pacissaana.m
√car carissamaano carissamaanaa carissamaana.m
carissaano carissaanaa carissaana.m
√su su.nissamaano su.nissamaanaa su.nissamaana.m
su.nissaano su.nissaanaa su.nissaana.m
The Passive Perfect Participle

450. This participle is very widely used. It is formed from the root by affixing to it the suffix ta or the suffix na.

Remark. The suffix ta is by far the most commonly used in the formation of this participle.

451. ta is affixed in several ways:

  1. If the root ends in a vowel, it is added directly without any change taking place in the root.
  2. When the root ends in a consonant, ta may be joined to it by means of connecting vowel i.
  3. When the root ends in a consonant, ta may become assimilated to it according to the usual rules.

Remark. At this stage the student ought to read carefully the chapter on Asssmilation (51.)


452. (i) Roots ending in a vowel

Root Present Passive Perfect Participle
√nahaa, to bathe nahaayati, he bathes nahaata, bathed
√buu, to be, become bhavati, he is, becomes bhuuta, been, become
√nii, to lead neti, nayati, he leads niita, led
√ji, to conquer jeti, jayati, he conquers jita, conquered
√ci, to collect cinaati, he collects cita, collected
√bhii, to be afraid bhaayati, he is afraid bhiita, afraid, frightened
√yaa, to go, undergo yaati, he goes yaata, gone, undergone
√~naa, to know jaanaati, he knows ~naata, known

Remark. There are a few exceptions to roots in final aa.
√paa, to drink: pita, drunk.
√.thaa, to stand: .thita, stood, standing.
√dhaa, to hold: hita, held.
√daa, to give: dinna, given.

(ii) Roots ending in a consonant and taking vowel i before ta

Root Present Passive Perfect Participle
√pac, to cook pacati, he cooks pacita, cooked
√cal, to shake calati, he shakes calita, shaken
√gah, to take ga.nhaati, he takes gahita, taken
√kapp, to arrange kappeti, he arranges kappita, arranged
√khaad, to eat khaadati, he eats khadita, eaten
√likh, to write likhati, he writes likhita, written
√ma.n.d, to adorn ma.n.deti, he adorns ma.n.dita, adorned
√gil, to swallow gilati, he swallows gilita, swallowed
√kath, to tell katheti, he tells kathita, told

(a) Participles like pacita, calita, etc., are declined like purisa, ka~n~naa and ruupa.m.
(b) In the neuter, these participles are often used as nouns:
√has, to smile; (Passive Perfect Participle:) hasita, smiled; (Neuter:) hasita.m, a smile.
√gajj, to thunder; (Passive Perfect Participle:) gajjitta, thundered; (Neuter:) gajjita.m, the thunder.
√jiiv, to live; (Passive Perfect Participle:) jiivita, lived; (Neuter:) jiivita.m, life.

453. (iii) ta assimilated to the root

The suffix ta assimilates, or is assimilated to the last consonant of the root:

Root Passive Perfect Participle Rules of Assimilation
√bhuj, to eat bhutta, eaten (59, a)
√muc, to free mutta, freed (59, b)
√is, to wish i.t.tha, wished (59, ii-iii)
√kas, to plough ka.t.tha, ploughed (92)
√.das, to bite da.t.tha, bitten (92)
√dam, to tame danta, tamed (67)
√kam, to proceed kanta, proceeded, gone (67)
√rudh, to obstruct ruddha, obstructed (63)
√budh, to know buddha, known (63)
√labh, to obtain laddha, obtained (63, Remark.)
√majj, to polish ma.t.tha (also ma.t.ta), polished (59, i)
√muh, to err mu.lha (also muddha), erred (100, 101, 102)
√ruh, to ascend ruu.lha, ascended (100, 101, 102)
√lih, to lick li.lha, licked (100, 101, 102)
√jhas, to hurt jhatta, hurt (94)
√pat, to fall patta, fallen (62)
√tap, to burn tatta, burned (64, i)
√duh, to milk duddha, milked (100)

454. (a) Roots in r generally drop the r before ta.

Root Passive Perfect Participle Rules of Assimilation
√kar, to make kata, made (81)
√sar, to remember sata, remembered (81)
√mar, to die mata, dead (81)

455. (b) Roots in n generally drop final n before ta.

Root Passive Perfect Participle
√man, to think mata, thought
√khan, or √kha.n, to dig khata (also: khaata, from a collateral form khaa=khan), dug
√han, to kill hata, killed

456. (c) Sometimes final .m is also dropped.

√gam, to go gata, gone
√ram, to sport rata, amused, delighted

457. (d) In a few cases, final r lingualizes the following t, as:

√har, to seize, carry ha.ta, seized, carried

458. Passive Perfect Participle which take na

The suffix na is much less common than ta, and like it:

  1. It may be joined to the root by means of connecting vowel i, or
  2. it may be joined directly to roots ending in a vowel;
  3. when added directly to roots ending in a consonant, that consonant is assimilated to n of na, and sometimes the n of na is assimilated to the final consonant.

Remark. na is added generally to roots in d and r.

459. Examples of (i)

Root Passive Perfect Participle Rules of Assimilation
√sad, to settle sinna, settled (69, ii, iii)

Remarks. The form sinna is found only for the verb nisiidati, to sit down = √sad + ni (prefix); when √sad is preceded by other prefixes, the Passive Perfect Participle assumes the form, sanna, as:

sad-ava = (Passive Perfect Participle:) ava sanna, sunk, settled.
sad+pa = (Passive Perfect Participle:) pasanna, settled.

(Note that the base of root sad is siida.)

Root Passive Perfect Participle Rules of Assimilation
√chid, to cut chinna, cut (69, ii, iii)
√chad, to cover channa, covered (69, ii, iii)
√daa, to give dinna, given (69, ii, iii)

In this last example, aa of the root has been dropped, and the n doubled to compensate for its loss; the form datta given (=daa+ta, with the t doubled to make for the shortening of aa), is found sometimes.

Remark. It will be seen from the above four examples that the insertion of i is to a great extent optional.

√tar, to cross ti.n.na, crossed (83)
√car, to wander ci.n.na, wandered (83)
√kir, to scatter ki.n.na, scattered (83)

Remark. In these examples, i is inserted and then reduplicated and lingualized according to rule (83).

460. Examples of (iii)

Root Passive Perfect Participle Rules of Assimilation
√bhaj, to break bhagga, broken (57)
√vij, to be agitated vigga, agitated (57)

In these two examples, final j of the root, having become, against the usual phonetic laws g, the n of suffix na, is assimilated to it by rule 57 (426, Remark).

√lag, to adhere lagga, adhered (57)

461. Examples of (ii)

Root Passive Perfect Participle
√lii, to cling to liina, clung to
√luu, to cut, reap luuna, reaped, cut
√khi, to decay, cease khiina, decayed (final i is lengthened)
√gilaa (glaa, 113), to be ill gilaana, ill
√haa, to be weak, low hiina, low, wasted, inferior

In the last example, radical aa is replaced by ii.

462. A few Passive Perfect Participles are irregular, such as:

but these are, properly speaking, derivative adjectives used as participles.

463. Sometimes two forms of the Passive Perfect Participles for the same root are met with:

Root Passive Perfect Participle
√lag, to adhere lagga and lagita
√gam, to go gata and gamita
√daa, to give dinna and datta
√kas, to plough ka.t.tha and kasita

464. The participles in ta and na are declined like purisa, ka~n~naa and ruupa.m.

Perfect Participle Active

465. The Perfect Participle Active (P.P.A.), is formed by adding vaa to the Passive Perfect Participle (P.P.P.).

Root P.P.P. P.P.A.
√pac, to cook pacita, cooked pacitavaa, having cooked
√bhuj, to eat bhutta, eaten bhuttavaa, having eaten
√kar, to do kata, made katavaa, having made


(a) These Perfect Participles Active are declined like gu.navaa.


pacitavaa, pacitavatii or pacitavantii, pacitava.m or pacitavanta.m.

(b) The Perfect Participles Active is also formed with suffix vii (231), in this case the a before vii is lengthened to aa. They are declined like medhaavi, (235) (that is, like da.n.dii, nadii and vaari as: pacitaavii having cooked; bhuttaavii, having eaten.)

Future Passive Participle

466. This participle, also called participle of necessity, potential participle and gerundive, is formed by adding to the root the suffixes: tabba, ya, aniiya and iiya.

(a) Roots ending in u, uu, generally form the Future Passive Participle from the special base.
(b) This participle is passive in sense, expresses suitability, fitness, propriety and may be translated by "fit to be...", "must be...", "ought to be...", "to be..." that which is expressed by the root.
(c) These participles, like those already treated of, are adjectives and are treated as such; they are declined like purisa, ka~n~naa and ruupa.m.


467. This suffix is the most common. It is added:

  1. Directly to roots ending in a vowel.
  2. To roots ending in a consonant, it may be joined by means of connecting vowel i.
  3. When added directly without connecting vowel i to roots ending in a consonant, initial t of tabba is assimilated to or assimilates the last consonant of the root in exactly the same manner as in the formation of the Passive Perfect Participle.
Examples of (i)
Root Future Passive Participle
√haa, to abandon haatabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be abandoned
√daa, to give daatabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be given
√pa, to drink paatabba, fit to be, that ought to be drunk


(a) Roots ending in i, ii, change i, ii, to e before tabba:

Root Future Passive Participle
√nii, to lead netabba, fit to be, that must be led
√ji, to conquer jetabba, fit to be, that must be conquered
√i, to go etabba, fit to be, that must be gone to

(b) Roots in u, uu form the Future Passive Participle on the special base:

Root Future Passive Participle
√bhuu, to be bhavitabba, fit to be, that ought to, that must be
√ku, to sing kavitabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be sung

In the case of root su, to hear, we find the u merely strengthened: sotabba, fit, etc., to be heard.

Examples of (ii)
Root Future Passive Participle
√pac, to cook pacitabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be cooked
√khan, to dig khanitabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be dug
√pucch, to ask pucchitabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be asked
Examples of (iii)
Root Future Passive Participle
√gam, to go gantabba, fit, etc., to be gone to (67)
√kar, to do kattabba (80); kaatabba (82), fit to be done, etc.
√labh, to receive laddhabba, fit, etc., to be received (63, Remark)

468. The initial y becomes assimilated to the last consonant of the root according to the usual rules of assimilation (79). Sometimes the radical vowel is strengthened.

Root Future Passive Participle Rules of assimilation
√gam, to go gamma, fit, proper, etc, to be gone to (71, i)
√sak, to be able sakka, able to be done (71)
√khaad, to eat, chew khajja, that can be chewed (71, vi)
√vaj, to avoid vajja, that ought to be avoided (71, 74)
√bhuu, to be bhabba, that ought to be, proper, possible (77)

In this last example, the radical vowel uu has been strengthened before ya: bhuu + ya = bhav + ya = bhavya = bhabba.

Root Future Passive Participle Rules of assimilation
√labh, to obtain labbha, fit, worthy to be obtained (71)
√bhuj, to eat bhojja, to be eaten, eatables, food (71)
√bhid, to break bhijja, to be broken (71, vi)
√lih, to lick, sip leyya, to be licked, sipped (98, Remark)
√has, to laugh hassa, fit to be laughed at (76)
√gah, to take gayha, that can be taken, seized (78, iii)

(a) ya is, in a few cases, cases, joined to the root by means of vowel i. For instance:

√kar, to do, make, we have:

√bhar, to support:

(b) After roots ending in aa long initial y of ya is doubled and final a of the root is changed to e.

Root Future Passive Participle
√haa, to abandon heyya, to be abandoned, that ought to be abandoned
√paa, to drink peyya, that can, may, or ought to be drunk
√daa, to give deyya, to be given, that ought to or can be given

(c) ya is likewise doubled after roots in i, ii and the i or ii is changed to e.

Root Future Passive Participle
√nii, to lead neyya, to be led, that ought to be led
√ji, to conquer jeyya, to be conquered, that can be conquered

469. The suffix aniiya is added to the root or to the base.

Root Future Passive Participle
√pac, to cook pacaniiya, fit to be cooked
√puj, to honour pujaniiya, worthy to be honoured
√kar, to do, make kara.niiya, that ought to be made or done
(Observe that the n is lingualised through the influence of radical r, 83)
√bhuu, to be (base: bhava) bhavaniiya, that ought to be
The Gerund

470. The gerund is formed by means of suffixes: tvaa, tvaana, tuuna, ya, and tya. It is indeclinable and partakes of the nature of a participle.

(a) The suffix tvaa is most commonly met with; tvaana, tuuna, and sometimes tuuna.m are used as substitutes of tvaa and are met with in poetry much more than in prose.
(b) ya is not so restricted in use as tvaana and tuuna.
(c) tya which becomes regularly cca (74, iv), is merely a form of ya, initial t being inserted between the gerundian, suffix ya and a root ending in a vowel. (e.g. pa + √i, to depart + ya = pa + i + t + ya = petya = pecca, having departed, 110).

In Paali, ya is added indiscriminately to simple roots or to roots compounded with prefixes; but, as in Sanskrit (in which it is never used after simple roots), it is much more common after compound verbs.

Tvaa, Tvaana, Tuuna

471. The suffix tvaa may be:

  1. Joined to the root by means of connecting vowel i.
  2. The initial t of the suffix is, in a few cases assimilated to the last consonant of the root.
  3. The vowel of the root is gu.nated.
  4. Sometimes the last consonant of the root is dropped before suffixes tvaa, tvaana and tuuna.
  5. The final long vowel of a root is shortened before these suffixes.
  6. The suffixes are added to the special base as well as to the root.
Root Gerund
√pac, to cook pacitvaa, having cooked (i)
√khaad, to eat khaaditvaa having eaten (i)
√labh, to obtain laddhaa, obtained (ii) (63, Remark)
labhitvaa, having obtained (i)
√nii, to lead netvaa, having led (iii)
√chid, to cut chetvaa, having cut (iii, iv)
√kar, to make katvaa, having made (iv)
√.thaa, to stand, remain .thitvaa, having stood, remained (i)
√bhii, to fear bhitvaa, having feared, fearing (v)
√daa, to give datvaa, having given (v)
√bhuj, to eat bhutvaa, having eaten (iv)
√aap-pa = paap, to get patvaa, having got (iv, v)
√ji, to conquer jitvaa, jetvaa, having conquered (iii)

From root √.thaa, we have also: .thatvaa.
From √daa: daditvaa, daditvaana.
From √kar: kaatuuna, kattuuna.
From √kam, to step, to proceed: nikkamitvaa, nikkamituuna.
From √su, to hear: sutvaa, sotuuna.m, su.nitvaa, su.nitvaana.

Ya, Tya


  1. ya is used mostly with roots compounded with prefixes.
  2. In a few cases, it is used with simple roots.
  3. tya is regularly changed cca.
  4. ya is added directly to roots ending in long aa.
  5. ya may be added to the special base.
  6. ya is assimilated to the last consonant of the root.
  7. ya may be joined to the root or to the base by means of i.
Root Gerund
√sic, to sprinkle nisi~nciya, having besprinkled (i, vii)
√jaa, to know vijaaniya, having known, discerned (i, v, vii)
√ikkh, to see samekkhiya, having reflected (i, vii)
√cint, to think cintiya, having thought (ii, vii)
√bhuj, to eat bhu~njiya, having eaten (v, ii, vii)
√daa, to give aadaaya, having given (i, iv)
√haa, to abandon vihaaya, having abandoned (i, iv)
√~naa, to know abhi~n~naaaya, having known (i, iv)
√gah, to take gayha, having taken (ii, iii)
√gam, to go gamma, having gone (vi; 71, ii)
√vis, to enter pavissa, having entered (vi, i)
√sad, to sit down nisajja, having sat (vi, 71, 74)
√sad, to sit down nisiidiya, having sat (i, vii, v) (See 459. Remark)
√kam, to tread akkamma, having trodden (vi, 71, 33, 35)
√i, to go pa + i + tya = pecca, having gone, departed (21, i; 74, iv)
√i, to go abhi + sam + aa + i + tya = abbisamecca, having comprehended (21, i)
√han, to strike aa + han + tya = aahacca, having struck; final n being dropped before initial t (n, dropped before t)
√han, to strike upa + han + tya = upahacca, having vexed (See last remark)
√han, to strike u + han + tya = uhacca, having destroyed (See last remark)
√i, to go pa.ti + i + tya = pa.ticca, following upon, from
√har, to take away aa + har + tya = aahacca, having reached, attained (81)

This last should not be confounded with gerund, from √han, given above.


(a) Sometimes the gerund having been formed by means of ya, the ya is dropped, the root alone remaining, as in:

(b) Some roots seem to take a compound gerundial suffix, made up of ya and tvaa, and joined to the root by means of i, as:

(c) There are some anomalous forms:

(d) The student will have remarked that several forms are met with from the same root, as:

Most roots can thus have several forms.

The Infinitive

473. The Infinitive is generally formed by means of suffix tu.m.

474. The suffixes tave, tuye and taaye are also met with, but seldom.

475. Tu.m, like the suffix of the Passive Perfect Participle (450) may be:

  1. joined to the root or to the base by vowel i.
  2. to the roots in aa, it is added directly.
  3. roots ending in i, ii, change final i, ii to e; and roots in u, uu, change u, uu to o.
  4. initial t of tu.m is assimilated to the last consonant of the root; the last consonant may also be assimilated to t.
  5. tu.m is also added to the special base.
Root Infinitive
√pac, to cook pacitu.m, to cook (i)
√khaad, to eat khaaditu.m, to eat (i)
√thar, to spread tharitu.m, to spread (i)
√daa, to give daatu.m (ii)
√.thaa, to stand .thaatu.m (ii)
√yaa, to go yaatu.m (ii)
√ji, to conquer jetu.m (iii)
√nii, to lead netu.m (iii)
√su, to hear sotu.m (iii)
√labh, to obtain laddhu.m, to obtain (iv; 63, remark)
√bhuj, to eat bhottu.m, to eat (iii, iv, 59a)
√aap, to obtain, + pa pattu.m, to obtain (iv; 64, i)
√gam, to go gantu.m, to go (iv, 67)
√i, to go etu.m, to go (iii)
√su, to hear su.nitu.m, to hear (v)
√budh, to know bodhitu.m, to know (i, iii)
√budh, to know bujjhitu.m, to know (i, v)
√sii, to lie down setu.m, to lie down (iii)
√sii, to lie down sayitu.m (v)
√jaa, to know jaanitu.m, to know (v)
√chid, to cut chinditu.m, to cut (v)
√chid, to cut chettu.m, to cut (iii, iv; 62, vi)
Tave, Tuye, Taaye

476. These suffixes are Vedic and seldom used in Paali; tave, however, is more frequently met with than the other two.

Root Infinitive
√nii, to lead nitave, to lead
√haa, to abandon vi + pa + haa + tave = vippahaatave, to abandon
√nam, to bend ud + nam + e + tave = unnametave, to ascend, rise
√dhaa, to hold ni + base:dhe (391) + tave = nidhetave, to hide, bury
√mar, to die marituye, to die, joined by vowel i
√ga.n, to count ga.netuye, to count, added to the base ga.ne
√dis, to see dakkhitaaye, to see (404)

477. The student will have remarked that several forms for the same root are often met with.

(a) The Infinitive is used both passsively and actively.
(b) The Dative of nouns in aaya is often used with an infinitive sense.
(c) The Infinitive expresses purpose and may be translated by: "for the purpose of, in order to."

(B) Derivative or Secondary Conjugation

478. The Derivative Conjugation includes:

  1. the Passive;
  2. the Causative;
  3. the Denominative;
  4. the Desiderative and,
  5. the Intensive.

479. It is called the derivative conjugation because the above named five kinds of verbs are derived from the simple root with a well-defined modification of the sense of the root itself.

480. Except for the Causative, derivative verbs are not conjugated in all the tenses and in all voices.

The Passive

481. The Passive conjugation is formed by adding the suffix ya to the root.

482. The suffix ya having been added and the Passive base obtained, the personal endings of either the active voice or of the reflective voice are added to the base.

483. Ya is affixed to the root in three ways:

  1. Directly after roots ending in a vowel.
  2. To roots in a double consonant, ya is joined by means of i, this i being lengthened to ii. It is also joined by means of i when a root ends in a consonant that does not generally reduplicate (s, h and r).
  3. It may be added directly to roots ending in a consonant; in this case the y of ya becomes assimilated to the last consonant of the root according to the Rules of Assimilation. (70.)
  4. Ya is also added to the special base by means of i, lengthened.
Examples of (i)


(a) When ya is added to roots ending in a vowel, the vowel of the root undergoes some change, especially vowels: a, i and u.

(b) Radical aa is changed to ii before ya and radical i, u, are lengthened to ii, uu.

Root Passive base
√daa, to give diiya, to be given
√paa, drink piiya, to be drunk
√dha, to hold dhiiya, to be held
√ji, to conquer jiiya, to be conquered
√ci, to heap ciiya, to be heaped up
√ku, to sing kuuya, to be sung
√su, to hear suuya, to be heard

(c) Radical long ii and uu, remain unaffected:

Root Passive base
√bhuu, to become bhuuya, to have become
√luu, to reap luuya, to be reaped
√nii, to lead niiya, to be led

(d) In some instances, the long vowel before ya is shortened, in which case the y is doubled.

Root Passive base
√nii, to lead √niiya, or √niyya
√su, to hear √suuya, or √suyya
√daa, to give √diiya, or √diyya

484. To the above bases the active or reflective personal endings being added, we obtain, for instance from √ji, to conquer, base jiiya (or jiyya).

Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. jiiyaami, I am conquered jiiyaama, we are conquered jiiye, I am conquered jiiyaamhe, we are conquered
2. jiiyasi, thou art conquered jiiyatha, you are conquered jiiyase, thou art conquered jiiyavhe, you are conquered
3. jiiyati, he is conquered jiiyanti, they are conquered jiiyate, he is conquered jiiyante, they are conquered

Optative: (1) jiiyeyya.m, jiiyeyyaami; (2) jiiyetho, jiiyeyyaasi; (3) jiiyetha, jiiyeyya, etc., etc.

Imperative: (1) jiiye, jiiyaami; (2) jiiyassu, jiiyaahi; (3)jiiyata.m, jiiyatu.

Examples of (ii)
Root Passive base
√pucch, to ask pucchiiya, to be asked
√has, to laugh hasiiya, to be laughed at
√vas, to live vasiiya, to be lived upon
√kar, to make kariiya, to be made
√sar, to remember sariiya, to be remembered
√mah, to honour mahiiya, to be honoured
Examples of (iii)
Root Passive base
√labh, to obtain labbha, to be obtained (70, 71)
√pac, to cook pacca, to be cooked (70, 71)
√bha.n, to speak bha~n~na, to be spoken (70, 71)
√khaad, to eat khajja, to be eaten (70, 71, 34)
√han, to kill ha~n~na, to be killed (70, 71)
√bandh, to bind bajjha, to be bound (70, 71, 74)
Examples of (iv)
Root Passive base
√gam, to go gacchiiya, to be gone to
√budh, to know bujjhiiya, to be known
√is, to wish, desire icchiiya, to be wished for

485. Long ii, before ya of the Passive, is sometimes found shortened, as: mahiiyati or mahiyati, to be honoured.

486. It is usual to form the Passive of roots ending in a consonant preceded by long aa, by means of ii:

487. Ya may be added directly after some roots ending a consonant without assimilation taking place and without the insertion of connecting vowel ii; as:

(a) We have already said that when the ii before ya is shortened, initial y is reduplicated by way of compensation (483, d).
(b) The Perfect, the Aorist, the Future and the Conditional (which four tenses are called: General Tenses; see 367), of the Reflective Voice, are often used in a passive sense.

488. The Passive may assume several forms from the same root:

489. Anomalous form of the Passive.

490. Final s of a root, which is not usually susceptible of reduplication is, however, sometimes found reduplicated as:

Causative Verbs

491. Causal or Causative verbs are formed by adding to the root the suffixes:

  1. aya, which is often contracted to e.
  2. aapaya, which likewise may be contracted to aape.


  1. The radical vowel of the root is gu.nated or strengthened before these suffixes, if followed by one consonant only.
  2. It remains unchanged when it is followed by two consonants.
  3. In some cases, radical a is not lengthened although followed by a single consonant.
  4. Roots in i, ii and u, uu form their causal from the special base.
  5. Other verbs, too, may form the causal from the special base.
  6. Some roots in a take aape, aapaya.
Root Causative base
√pac, to cook paace, paacaya, paacaape, paacaapaya, to cause to cook (i)
√kar, to do kaare, kaaraya, kaaraape, kaaraapaya, to cause to do (i)
√gah, to take gaahe, gaahaya, gaahaape, gaahaapaya, to cause to take (i)
√mar, to kill maare, maaraya, maaraape, maaraapaya, to cause to kill (i)
√sam, to be appeased same, samaya, samaape, samaapaya, to cause to be appeased (iii)
√gam, to go game, gamaya, to cause to go, (iii); we find also: gaame
√chid, to cut chede, chedaya, chedaape, chedaapaya, to cause to cut (i)
√bhuj, to eat bhoje, bhojaya, bhojaape, bhojaapaya, to cause to eat (i)
√rudh, to hinder rodhe, rodhaya, rodhaape, rodhaapaya, to cause to hinder (i)
√bhid, to break bhede, bhedaya, bhedaape, bhedaapaya, to cause to break (i)
√su, to hear saave, saavaya, saavaape, saavaapaya, to cause to hear (iv)
√bhuu, to be bhaave, bhaavaya, etc (iv)
√sii, to lie down saaye, saayaya, sayaape, sayaapaya, to cause to lie down (iv, iii)
√nii, to lead naayaya, nayaape, nayaapaya, to cause to lead (iv, iii)
√pucch, to ask pucchaape, pucchaapaya, to cause to ask (ii)
√dhaa, to place pidhaape, pidhaapaya, to cause to shut (vi). with prefix pi, pidahaape, pidahaapaya, to cause to shut (v, ii)
√daa, to give daape, daapaya, to cause to give
√.thaa, to stand .thape, .thapaya, to place (vi, with a shortened)
Double Causal

493. There is a double causal formed by adding aapaape to the root.

Root Simple Causal Double Causal
√pac, to cook paace, paacaape, etc. paacaapaape, paacaapaapaya
√chid, to cut chede, chedaape, etc. chedaapaape, chedaapaapaya
√bhuj, to eat bhoje, bhojaape, etc. bhojaapaape, bhojaapaapaya

Remarks. The double causal may be translated by "to get to, or, to make to cause to." For instance: So purisa.m daasa.m odana.m paacaapaapeti. "He causes the man to cause the slave to cook the food." or "He got the man to make the slave to cook the food."
Note that the first accusative or object purisa.m may be and is often, replaced by an Instrumentive.

494. The causative verbs are declined like the verbs in i, ii of the 1st conjugation, 3rd division (393, 385) and like the verbs of the 7th conjugation. (379)


√pac, to cook, causative base: paace, paacaya, paacaape, paacaapaya, to cause to cook.


  Singular Plural
1. paacemi, paacayaami, paacaapemi, paacaapayaami, I cause to cook paacema, paacayaama, paacaapema, paacaapayaama, we cause to cook
2. paacesi, paacayasi, paacaapesi, paacaapayasi, thou causest to cook paacetha, paacayatha, paacaapetha, paacaapayatha, you cause to cook
3. paaceti, paacayati, paacaapeti, paacaapayati, he causes to cook paacenti, paacayanti, paacaapenti, paacaapayanti, they cause to cook


  Singular Plural
1. paaceyyaami, paacayeyyaami, paacaapeyyaami, paacaapayeyyaami, I should cause, etc. paaceyyaama, paacayeyyaama, paacaapeyyaama, paacaapayeyyaama, we should cause, etc.
2. paaceyyaasi, paacayeyyaasi, paacaapeyyaasi, paacaapayeyyaasi, thou shouldst cause, etc. paaceyyaatha paacayeyyaatha, paacaapeyyaatha, paacaapayeyyaatha, you should cause, etc.
3. paaceyya, paacayeyya, paacaapeyya, paacaapayeyya, he should cause, etc. paaceyyu.m, paacayeyyu.m, paacaapeyyu.m, paacaapayeyyu.m, they should cause, etc.

And so on for the other tenses.

(a) The bases in e and pe take the Sigmatic Aorist endings (418, 419).
(b) The bases in aya take the other endings (407, b). As: paacesi.m, paacesi, paacaapesi.m, paacayi.m, paacayi, paacaapayi.m, paacaapayi, etc.

Causal Passive

495. The passive of a causal verb is formed by joining the suffix ya of the Passive to the Causative base, by means of i, lengthened to ii, final vowel e of the Causative base having been dropped first. The Causal Passive may be translated by "caused to... , made to do..." the action expressed by the root.

Roots Simple verb Causal Causal Passive
√pac, to cook pacati paaceti paaciiyati, to be caused to cook
√bhuj, to eat bhu~njati bhojeti bhojiiyati, to be caused to eat
√kar, to do karoti kaareti kaariiyati, to be caused to do

Remark. Connective vowel i may also be found short.

496. Some verbs, although in the Causative, have merely a transitive sense as:

497. Verbs of the 7th conjugation form their causal by adding aape or aapaya to the base, the final vowel of the base having first been dropped.
Roots Base Simple verb Causal
√cur, to steal core coreti, corayati coraapeti, coraapayati
√kath, to tell kathe katheti, kathayati kathaapeti, kathaapayati
√tim, to wet teme temeti, temayati temaapeti, temaapayati

Denominative Verbs

498. So called because they are formed from a noun stem by means of certain suffixes.

499. The meaning of the Denominative Verb is susceptible of several renderings in English; it generally expresses:

  1. "to act as, to be like, to wish to be like" that which is denoted by the noun.
  2. "to wish for, to desire" that which is signified by the noun.
  3. "to change or make into" that which is denoted by the noun.
  4. "to use or make use of" that which is expressed by the noun.

500. The suffixes used to form Denominative verbal stems are:

  1. aaya, aya, e
  2. iiya, iya
  3. a
  4. aara, aala (these two rather rare)
  5. aape

501. The base or stem having been obtained by means of the above suffixes, the personal endings of the tenses are added exactly as they are after other verbs.

Noun stem Denominative verb
pabbata, a mountain pabbataayati, to act like a mountain
macchara, avarice macchaarayati, to be avaricious (lit. to act avariciously)
samudda, the ocean sammuddaayati, to be or act like the ocean
nadii, river nadiyiti, to do, act like a river
ara~n~na, forest ara~n~niiyati, to act (in town) as in the forest
dhana, riches dhanayati, dhanaayati, to desire riches
putta, a son puttiiyati, to desire, or treat as a son
patta, a bowl pattiiyati, to wish for a bowl
ciivara, monk's robe ciivariiyati, to desire a robe
dolaa, a palankin dolaayati, to desire a, or wish for one's own palankin
vii.naa, a lute vii.naayati, to use the lute, to play on the lute
upakkama, diligence, plan upakkkamaalati, to make diligence, to devise plans
ga.na, a following ga.nayati, to wish for a following or disciples
samodhaana, a connection samodhaaneti, to connect, join
saarajja, modesty saarajjati, to be shy, nervous shyness
ta.nhaa, craving ta.nhaayati, ta.nhiiyati, to crave
metta.m, love mettaayati, to love
karu.na, mercy, pity karu.naayati, to pity
sukha, happiness sukhaapeti, to make happy
dukkha, misery dukkhaapeti, to make miserable
u.nha, heat u.nhaapeti, to heat, warm
ja.taa, matted hair, tangled branches vija.taayati, disentangle, comb out
pariyosaana, end paariyosaanati, to end, to cease

502. Denominatives can also be formed from the stems of adjectives and adverbs, as:

Stem Denominative verb
da.lha, firm, strong da.lhaayati, to make firm, strong
santa.m, being good santarati, to act well, or handsomely
a.t.ta, afflicted, hurt a.t.tayati, to hurt, afflict


(a) Suffixes aara and aala are simply modifications of aya.

(b) There is an uncommon way of forming Denominative verbs from nouns: the 1st, 2nd or 3rd syllable of the noun is reduplicated and the suffix iiyisa or yisa added to the word thus reduplicated; the vowel u or i may or may not be inserted between the reduplication. (Niruttidiipanii).

Noun stem Denominative verb
putta, son pupputtiiyisati, to wish to be (as) a son
putta, a son puttittiyisati, to wish to be (as) a son
kamala.m, flower kakamalaayisati or kamamalaayisati or kamalalaayisati, to wish to be (as) a flower

(c) The Causal and Passive of all Denominatives are formed in the usual manner.

Desiderative Verbs

503. As its very name indicates, the Desiderative conjugation expresses the wish or desire to do or be that which is denoted by the simple root.

504. The Desiderative is not extensively used in Paali; however, it is frequent enough to warrant a careful perusal of the rules for its formation.

505. The suffix sa is the characteristic sign of this conjugation; another characteristic is the reduplication of the root according to the rules already given (372). The student ought first to look carefully over those rules.

Root Desiderative base Desiderative verb
√su, to hear sussusa sussusati, to desire to hear = listens (33,372-7c)
√bhuj, to eat bubhukkha bubhukkhati, to wish to eat (86, 372-5)
√tij, to bear titikkha titikkhati, to endure, be patient (86, 372-7b)
√ghas, to eat jighaccha jighacchati, to desire to eat (89, 372-7a)
√paa, to drink pipaasa, pivaasa pivaasati, to desire to drink (372-7a). (pivaasa, from the root)
√kit, to cure cikiccha cikicchati, to desire to cure, to treat (88; 372-2)

506. It will be remarked that the initial s of sa is mostly assimilated.

507. The bases being obtained, the personal endings are added as usual.

Remark.The Causal and Passive are formed in the usual way.

Intensive Verbs

508. The Intensive Verbs also called Frequentative Verbs, express the frequent repetition or the intensification of the action denoted by the simple root. The characteristic of the Intensive conjugation is the reduplication of the root according to the usual rules (372).

509. These verbs are not very frequent in Paali.

Root Intensive verb
√lap, to talk laalappati, laalapati, to lament
√kam, to go ca`nkamati, to walk to and fro
√gam, to go ja`ngamati, to go up and down
√cal, to move ca~ncalati, to move to and fro, to tremble

The personal endings are added as usual.

Defective and Anomalous Verbs

510. √as, to be

Present System


  Singular Plural
1. asmi, amhi, I am asma, amha, we are
2. asi, thou art attha, you are
3. atthi, he is santi, they are


  Singular Plural
1. asmi, amhi, let me be asma, amha, let us be
2. ahi, be thou attha, be ye
3. atthu, let him, her, it be santu, let them be

Present Participle

  Active Reflective
Masculine santo, being samaano, being
Feminine santii, being samaanaa, being
Neuter santa.m, being samaana.m, being


  Singular Plural
1. aasi.m, I was, I have been aasimhaa, aasimha, we were, we have been
2. aasi, thou wast, thou hast been aasittha, you were, you have been
3. aasi, he was, he has been aasu.m, aasi.msu, they were, they have been


  Singular Plural
1. assa.m, if I were or should be assaama, if we were or should be
2. assa, if thou wert or should be assatha, if you were or should be
3. assa, siyaa, if he were or should be assu, siyu.m, if they were or should be

511. √huu, to be. (huu is a contracted form of root bhuu).

Present System


  Singular Plural
1. homi homa
2. hosi hotha
3. hoti honti


  Singular Plural
1. ahuva, ahuva.m ahuvamha, ahuvamhaa
2. ahuvo ahuvattha
3. ahuva, ahuvaa ahuvu


  Singular Plural
1. homi homa
2. hohi homa
3. hotu hontu


  Singular Plural
1. heyyaami heyyaama
2. heyyaasi heyyaatha
3. heyya heyyu.m

Present Participle

Masculine honto
Feminine hontii
Neuter honta.m


  Singular Plural
1. ahosi.m, ahu.m ahosimhaa, ahumhaa
2. ahosi ahosittha
3. ahosi, ahu ahesu.m, ahu.m

The Future has already been given (436).

Infinitive Gerund Future. P.P.
hotu.m hutvaa hotabbo

512. √kar, to do, make.

Present System


The Present Active has already been given (403).

Singular Plural
1. kubbe kubbamhe, kurumhe
2. kubbase, kuruse kubbavhe, kuruvhe
3. kubbate, kurute, kubbati kubbante, kurunte


Singular Plural
1. kare, kubbe, kareyya, kubbeyya, kayiraa, kayiraami kareyyaama, kubbeyyaama, kayiraama
2. kare, kubbe, kareyyaasi, kubbeyyaasi, kayiraa, kayiraasi kareyyaatha, kubbetha, kayiraatha
3. kare, kubbe, kareyya, kubbeyya, kayiraa kareyya.m, kubbeyya.m, kayira.m


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. akara, akara.m akaramhaa akari.m akaramhase
2. akaro akarattha akarase akaravha.m
3. akara akaru akarattha akaratthu.m

The Aorist has been given (412).


  Active Reflective
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. karomi karoma kubbe kubbaamase
2. kuru, karohi karotha kurussu kuruvho
3. karotu, kurutu karontu, kubbantu kuruta.m kubbanta.m


Besides the usual Future in ssaami: karissaami, karissasi, there is another form given in (436).

Present Participle

  Active Reflective
Masculine kara.m, karonto karamaano, kurumaano, karaano, kubbaano
Feminine karontii karamaanaa, kurumaanaa, karaanaa, kubbaanaa
Neuter kara.m, karonta.m karamaana.m, kurumaana.m, karaana.m, kubbaana.m

Future Passive Participle

kattabbo, kaatabbo, kaariyo, kayiro, kayyo, kara.niiyo.

Remarks. All the forms in yira are obtained through metathesis, in kayyo the r has been assimilated.

Present Passive Participle

kariiyamaano, kariyyamaano, kayiiramaano, kariyamaano.

Passive Base

The passive base has several forms: kariiya, kariyya, kariya, kayira.

513. √da, to give.

The Present Optative and Imperative have already been given. (395) The student will remark that some of the tenses are formed directly on the root: the Radical Aorist, the Sigmatic Aorist, the Future and the Conditional.

  Radical Aorist Sigmatic Aorist
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. ada.m adamhaa adaasi.m adaasimhaa
2. ado adattha adaasi adaasittha
3. ada ada.msu, adu.m adaasi adaasu.m, adaasi.msu


  From the base From the root
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. dadissaami dadissaama dassaami dassaama
2. dadissasi dadissatha dassasi dassatha
3. dadissati dadissanti dassati dassanti


  Singular Plural
1. adassa.m adassamhaa
2. adasse adassatha
3. adassaa adassa.msu


  Masculine Nominative Singular
Present dada.m, dadanto
Past dinno
Active Perfect dinnavaa
Future dadassa.m, dadassanto
Future Passive daatabbo, daayo
Present Reflective dadaamaano

Present Reflective Participle: dadaamaanaa (fem.), dadaamaana.m (neut.)

Verbal Prefixes

514. The Prefixes or Prepositions, called in Paali: Upasagga (23, Remark), are prefixed to verbs and their derivatives; they have been, on that account, called Verbal Prefixes. They generally modify the meaning of the root, or intensify it, and sometimes totally alter it; in many cases, they add but little to the original sense of the root.

515. The usual rules of sandhi apply when these prefixes are placed before verbs. When a prefix is placed before a tense with the augment a, the augment must not change its position, but remain between the prefix and the root, as: agaa + ati = accagaa (74, i), and not: aatigaa

516. These prefixes are as follows:

aa to, at, towards, near to, until, as far as, away, all round.


Remarks. This prefix reverses the meaning of some roots:
√daa, to give, but aadaati, to take.
√gam, to go, base: gaccha = aagacchati, to come.

ati (before vowel = acc) beyond, across, over, past, very much, very; it expresses excess.


adhi (before vowels = ajjh) over, above, on, upon, at, to in, superior to, great, it expresses sometimes superiority.


anu after, along, according to, near to, behind, less than, in consequence of, beneath.


apa off, away, away from, forth: it also implies detraction, hurt, reverence.


api on, over, unto, close upon. This prefix is very seldom used; it is prefixed mostly to the roots: √dhaa, to put, set, lay, and √nah, to bind, join. It is moreover found abbreviated to pi in most instances.


abhi to, unto, towards, against, in the direction of. It also expresses excess, reverence, particularity. (Before a vowel = abbh).


ava down, off, away, back, aside, little, less. Implies also: disrespect, disregard.

Remarks. ava, is often contracted to o.


ud (= the u of native grammarians; for the assimilation of final d to the following consonants see 58, 60, 62, 65. Before h, sometimes final d is lost and the u lengthened.) upwards, above, up, forth, out.


Remark. ud reverses the meaning of a few verbs.

upa unto, to, towards, near, with, by the side of, as, like, up to, (opposed to apa), below, less.


ni (sometimes lengthened to nii, and before a vowel = nir) out, forth, down, into, downwards, in, under.


pa onward, forward to, forth, fore, towards, with. It expresses beginning.


pati, pa.ti against, back to, in reverse direction, back again in return, to, towards, near.


paraa away, back, opposed to, aside, beyond.


pari around, all around, about, all about, all over. Expresses completeness, etc.


vi asunder, apart, away, without. Implies separation, distinctness, dispersion.


sam with, along, together, fully, perfectly.

Remarks. It should be borne in mind that two, and sometimes three, of the above prefixes may combine. The most common combinations are:

Remark. The student must be prepared to meet with some other combinations; the general meaning of a word can always be traced from the sense of the several combined prefixes.

517. It is important to note that the prefixes or prepositions are used, not only with verbs, but also with verbal derivatives, nouns and adjectives, as: anutiire, along the bank; adhicitta.m, high thought; abhiniilo, very black.

518. pari is often written: pali (72).

519. pari, vi and sam very often add merely an intensive force to the root.

520. After prefixes, sam, upa, paraa, pari, and the word pura, in front, √kar sometimes assumes the form: khar.


521. A few adverbs are used very much in the same way as the Verbal Prefixes, but their use is restricted to a few verbs only. They are:

522. Prefixes du and su are never used with verbs, (see Chapter on Adverbs), and prefix a (an), is very seldom so used.

523. To finish this chapter on verbs, we will now give the paradigm of a verb fully conjugated: √pac, to cook (stem paca).

Present System

Present I cook, etc.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. pacaami pacaama pace pacaamhe
2. pacasi pacatha pacase pacavhe
3. pacati pacanti pacate pacare, pacante

Imperfect I cooked, etc.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. apaca, apaca.m apacamhaa, apacamha apaci.m apacaamhase, apacamhase
2. apaco apacattha apacase apacavha.m
3. apaca apacu apacattha apacatthu.m

Imperative Let me cook, etc.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. pacaami pacaama pace pacaamaase
2. pacaahi, paca pacatha pacassu pacavho
3. pacatu pacantu pacata.m pacanta.m

Optative I should, would, could, can, etc., cook.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. paceyyaami, pace paceyyaama paceyya.m paceyyaamhe
2. paceyyaasi, pace paceyyaatha pacetho paceyyavho
3. paceyya, pace paceyyu.m pacetha pacera.m

Present Participle

  Active voice Reflective voice
Masculine paca.m, pacanto pacamaano, pacaano
Feminine pacatii, pacantii pacamaanaa, pacaanaa
Neuter paca.m, pacanta.m pacamaana.m, pacaana.m
Aorist System

(Stem pac)

Aorist I cooked, or, I have cooked, etc.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. apaci.m apacimhaa apaca apacimhe
2. apaci apacittha apacise apacivha.m
3. apaci, apacii apacu.m, apaci.msu apacaa, apacuu apacu.m, apaci.msu

Remark. The augment a may be left out.

Perfect System

(Stem: papac)

Perfect I cooked, etc.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. papaca papacimha papaci papacimhe
2. papace papacittha papacittho papacivho
3. papaca papacu papacittha papacire

Perfect Participle Having cooked.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Masculine pacitavaa, pacitavanto, pacitaavii pacitavaa, pacitavanto, pacitaavii
Feminine pacitavatii, pacitavantii, pacitaavinii pacitavatii, pacitavantii, pacitaavinii
Neuter pacitava.m, pacitavanta.m, pacitaavi pacitava.m, pacitavanta.m, pacitaavi

Remark. The Perfect Participle is the same for the Reflective as for the Active Voice. (For formation, see 465).

Future System

(Stem: pacissa)

Future I shall cook, etc.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. pacissaami pacissaama pacissa.m pacissaamhe
2. pacissasi pacissatha pacissase pacissavhe
3. pacissati pacissanti pacissate pacissante

Conditional If I could cook, etc.

  Active voice Reflective voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. apacissa.m apacissamhaa apacissa.m apacissaamhase
2. apacisse apacissatha apacissase apacissavhe
3. apacissaa apacissa.msu apacissatha apacissi.msu

Future Participle

  Active voice Reflective voice
Masculine pacissa.m, pacissanto pacissamaano, pacissaano
Feminine pacissatii, pacissantii pacissamaanaa, pacissaanaa
Neuter pacissa.m, pacissanta.m pacissamaana.m, pacissaana.m

Infinitive: pacitu.m.

Gerund: pacitvaa, pacitvaana, pacituuna, paciya.

Future P.P.: pacitabba, pacaniiya.

P.P.P.: pacita.

524. A paradigm of √cur, to steal. Base coraya or core.

Present System

Active voice

  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. corayaami corayaama coremi corema
2. corayasi corayatha coresi coretha
3. corayati corayanti coreti corenti

Imperfect (from base coraya only)

  Singular Plural
1. acoraya, acoraya.m acorayamhaa, acorayamha
2. acorayo acorayattha
3. acoraya acorayu


  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. corayaami corayaama coremi corema
2. corayaahi corayatha corehi coretha
3. corayatu corayantu coretu corentu


  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. corayeyyaami corayeyyaama coreyyaami coreyyaama
2. corayeyyaasi corayeyyaatha coreyyaasi coreyyaatha
3. corayeyya, coraye corayeyyu.m coreyya coreyyu.m

Present Participle

  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
Masculine coraya.m, corayanto corento
Feminine corayatii, corayantii corentii
Neuter coraya.m, corayanta.m corenta.m
Aorist System


  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. corayi.m corayimhaa, corayimha coresi.m coresimhaa, coresimha
2. corayi corayittha coresi coresittha
3. corayi corayu.m, corayi.msu coresi coresu.m, coresi.msu
Perfect System

(The Perfect Tense of these verbs is not generally met with but it would be: cucora, cucore, cucorimha, etc).

Perfect Participle Active

  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
Masculine corayitavaa, corayitavanto, corayitaavii coritavaa, coritavanto, coritaavii
Feminine corayitavatii, corayitavantii, corayitaavinii coritavatii, coritavantii, coritaavinii
Neuter corayitava.m, corayitavanta.m, corayitaavi coritava.m, coritavanta.m, coritaavi
Future System


  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. corayissaami corayissaama coressaami coressaama
2. corayissasi corayissatha coressasi coressatha
3. corayissati corayissanti coressati coressanti


  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
1. acorayissa.m acorayissamhaa
2. acorayisse acorayissatha
3. acorayissaa acorayissa.msu

Future Participle Active

  First form (base: coraya) Second form (base: core)
Masculine corayissa.m, corayissanto coressa.m, coressanto
Feminine corayissatii, corayissantii coressatii, coressantii
Neuter corayissa.m, corayissanta.m coressa.m, coressanta.m

Present Participle Reflective

Masculine corayamaano, corayaano
Feminine corayamaanaa, corayaanaa
Neuter corayamaana.m, corayaana.m

Infinitive: corayitu.m, coretu.m.

Gerund: corayitvaa, coretvaa.

P.P.F.: corayitabbo, coretabbo.

P.P.P.: corito, coritaa, corita.m.

525. The Reflective Voice presents no difficulty; it is generally formed on the base in aya:


  Present Imperfect
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. coraye corayaamhe acoraya.m acorayaamhase
2. corayase corayavhe acorayase acorayavha.m
3. corayate corayante acorayattha acorayatthu.m

526. The Passive Voice is formed in the usual way by joining ya to the base by means of vowel i lengthened to ii, the final vowel of the base being dropped before ii.

Passive Voice

Singular Plural
1. coriiyaami, I am robbed. coriiyamaa, we are robbed.
2. coriiyasi, thou art robbed. coriiyatha, you are robbed.
3. coriiyati, he is robbed. coriiyanti, they are robbed.

And so on for the other tenses.

527. The Causal and the Denominative Verbs are conjugated exactly like coreti.

528. The following paradigm will familiarize the student with the changes which take place in the principal forms of the verb:

Root Special base Active Reflective Passive Causal Causal Passive
√pac, to cook paca pacati pacate paccate, paccati paaceti, paacaapeti, paacayati, paacaapayati paaciyati, paacaapiyati
√daa, to give dadaa dadaati dadate diyate, diyati daapati, daapaapeti daapiyati
√nii, to lead ne, naya neti, nayati nayate niyate, niyati, niyyati naayayati, nayaapeti, nayaapayati nayaapiyati
√han, to kill hana hanati, hanti hanate ha~n~nate, ha~n~nati haneti, hanaapeti, hanayati, hanaapayati hanaapiyati, hanayiyati
√khaad, to eat khaada khaadati khaadate khaajjate, khaajjati khaadeti, khaadayati, khaadaapeti, khaadaapayati khaadapiyati, khaadaapiyati
√lu, to cut lunaa lunaati lunate luuyate, luuyati laaveti, laavayati laaviyati
√bhuu, to be bhava bhavati bhavate bhuuyate, bhuuyati bhaaveti, bhaavayati, bhaavaapeti, bhaavaapayati bhaaviyati
√labh, to get labha labhati labhate labbhate, labbhati labheti, labhayati, labhaapeti, labhaapayati labhaapiyati
√su, to hear su.naa, su.no su.naati, su.noti su.nate suuyate, suuyati saaveti, su.napeti saaviyati