Tipitaka Network :: Pāḷi Synthesis
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- Pali Primer
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1. The Gerund, the Absolutive or the Indeclinable Participle
The suffix -tvaa is added to the root of the verb or verbal base* with or
sometimes without the connecting vowel -i- to form the gerund, absolutive or the
- pac + i + tvaa = pacitvaa = having cooked
- khaad + i + tvaa = khaaditvaa = having eaten
- gam + tvaa = gantvaa = having gone
- han + tvaa = hantvaa = having killed
The suffix -ya is sometimes added to roots with a prefix.
- aa + gam + ya = aagamma (with assimilation) = having come
- aa + daa + ya = aadaaya = having taken
- aa + ruh + ya = aaruyha (with metathesis) = having climbed
- ava + ruh + ya = oruyha (with metathesis) = having descended
2. Attention may be paid to the following forms:
- bhu~njati - bhu~njitvaa, bhutvaa
- aagacchati - aagantvaa, aagamma
- hanati - hanitvaa, hantvaa
- dadaati - daditvaa, datvaa
- nahaayati - nahaayitvaa, nahaatvaa
- ti.t.thati - .thatvaa
- nikkhamati - nikkhamitvaa, nikkhamma
- pajahati - pajahitvaa, pahaaya
- passati - passitvaa; but disvaa is more commonly used from the root d.rś to
see, instead of passitvaa.
- u.t.thahati - u.t.thahitvaa, u.t.thaaya
3. Examples in sentence formation
- Kassako khettamhaa aagantvaa bhatta.m bhu~njati.
The farmer, having come from the field, eats rice.
- Vaanaraa rukkha.m aaruyha phalaani khaadanti.
Having climbed the tree, monkeys eat fruits.
- Daarako bhatta.m yaacitvaa rodati.
Having asked for rice, the child cries.
- Sama.no Buddha.m passitvaa vandati.
Having seen the Buddha, the recluse worships (him).
* The root is the simplest element of a verb without prefixes, suffixes or terminations. These are normally given in Sanskrit in grammars by
Western scholars. The base is formed by adding a suffix to the root before
a termination. For example:
- pac is the root; paca is the base
- khaad is the root; khaada is the base
- bhuj is the root; bhu~nja is the base
- gam is the root; gaccha is the base
Translate into English
- Upaasako vihaara.m gantvaa sama.naana.m daana.m dadaati.
- Saavako aasanamhi nisiiditvaa paade dhovati.
- Daarakaa pupphaani sa.mharitvaa maatulassa datvaa hasanti.
- Yaacakaa uyyaanamhaa aagamma kassakasmaa odana.m yaacanti.
- Luddako hatthena sare aadaaya ara~n~na.m pavisati.
- Kumaaraa kukkurena saddhi.m kii.litvaa samudda.m gantvaa nahaayanti.
- Vaa.nijo paasaa.nasmi.m .thatvaa kuddaalena sappa.m paharati.
- Sappuriso yaacakassa putte pakkositvaa vatthaani dadaati.
- Daarako aavaa.tamhi patitvaa rodati.
- Bhuupaalo paasaadamhaa nikkhamitvaa amaccena saddhi.m bhaasati.
- Sunakho udaka.m pivitvaa gehamhaa nikkhamma magge sayati.
- Sama.naa bhuupaalassa uyyaane sannipatitvaa dhamma.m bhaasanti.
- Putto nahaatvaa bhatta.m bhutvaa ma~nca.m aaruyha sayati.
- Vaa.nijaa diipamhaa nagara.m aagamma aacariyassa gehe vasanti.
- Rajako vatthaani dhovitvaa putta.m pakkosati.
- Vaanaraa rukkhehi oruyha uyyaane aahi.n.danti.
- Migaa vanamhi aahi.n.ditvaa pa.n.naani khaadanti.
- Kumaaro nayanaani dhovitvaa suriya.m passati.
- Naavikassa mittaa nagarasmaa bha.n.daani aadaaya gaama.m aagacchanti.
- Daarako khiira.m pivitvaa gehamhaa nikkhamma hasati.
- Sappurisaa daanaani datvaa siilaani rakkhitvaa sagga.m gacchanti.
- Suukaro udakamhaa uttaritvaa aavaa.ta.m oruyha sayati.
- Taapaso Tathaagatassa saavaka.m disvaa vanditvaa pa~nha.m pucchati.
- Asappuriso yaacakassa patta.m bhinditvaa akkositvaa geha.m gacchati.
- Saku.naa gaame rukkhehi uppatitvaa ara~n~na.m otaranti.
- Pa.n.dito aasanamhaa u.t.thahitvaa taapasena saddhi.m bhaasati.
- Daarako gehaa nikkhamma maatula.m pakkositvaa geha.m pavisati.
- Devaa sappurisesu pasiiditvaa te (them) rakkhanti.
- Kumaarassa sahaayakaa paasaada.m aaruyha aasanesu nisiidanti.
- Go.naa khettamhi aahi.n.ditvaa ti.na.m khaaditvaa sayanti.
Translate into Paali
- Having gone out of the house the farmer enters the field.
- Having preached (deseti) the doctrine, the Buddha enters the monastery.
- The king having been pleased with the Buddha, abandons the palace and goes
to the monastery.
- Having climbed down from the stairway, the child laughs.
- Having hit the serpent with a stone the boy runs into the house.
- Having gone to the forest the man climbs a tree and eats fruits.
- Having washed the clothes in the water, the washerman brings (them) home.
- The lion having killed a goat, eats having sat on a rock.
- The doctor having seen the merchants' goods leaves the city.
- Having broken (into) the house thieves run to the forest.
- Having roamed in the field the pig falls into a pit.
- The fisherman brings fish from the sea for farmers.
- Having taken goods from the city, the teacher comes home.
- Having stood on a mountain, the hunter shoots birds with arrows.
- The oxen having eaten grass in the park, sleep on the road.
- The king having got down from the chariot speaks with the farmers.
- The man having given up his house enters the monastery.
- Fishermen give fish to merchants and receive profits.
- The lay devotee having asked a question from the monk sits on his seat.
- The disciples of the Buddha, having seen the wicked men, admonish.
- The brahmin, having scolded the child, hits (him).
- The deities, having asked questions from the Buddha, become glad.
- The dog, having bitten the teacher's foot, runs into the house.
- The monkey, having played with the goat on the road, climbs a tree.
- The hermit, having come from the forest, receives a cloth from the good
- Having drunk water, the child breaks the bowl.
- Having advised the farmers' sons, and having risen from the seats, the
monks go to the monastery.
- The sailor, having crossed the sea, goes to the island.
- The child calls the uncles and dances in the house.
- Having washed clothes and bathed, the farmer gets out of water.