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Paali Primer
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 11
Lesson 12
Lesson 13
Lesson 14
Lesson 15
Lesson 16
Lesson 17
Lesson 18
Lesson 19
Lesson 20
Lesson 21
Lesson 22
Lesson 23
Lesson 24
Lesson 25
Lesson 26
Lesson 27
Lesson 28
Lesson 29
Lesson 30
Lesson 31
Lesson 32
For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

Paali Primer

Lesson 13

1. Conjugation of Verbs

Present Tense Active Voice (contd.)

Verbs which have the base ending in -e are conjugated somewhat differently from what has been learnt so far. They can have two verbal bases, one ending in -e, the other ending in -aya, as in coreti and corayati.

Base: core = to steal

  Singular Plural
3rd (So) coreti (Te) corenti
2nd (Tva.m) coresi (Tumhe) coretha
1st (Aha.m) coremi (Maya.m) corema

Base: coraya = to steal

  Singular Plural
3rd (So) corayati (Te) corayanti
2nd (Tva.m) corayasi (Tumhe) corayatha
1st (Aha.m) corayaami (Maya.m) corayaama

2. Vocabulary

Some verbs similarly conjugated are as follows:

3. Gerunds and infinitives

N.B. Gerunds/absolutives and infinitives from the above verbs are formed retaining the -e in the base.

Gerunds - desetvaa, cintetvaa, puujetvaa, puuretva etc.
Infinitives - desetu.m, cintetu.m, puujetu.m, puuretu.m etc.

4. More conjugation of verbs

Verbs which have the base ending in -naa are conjugated as follows:

Base: ki.naa = to buy

  Singular Plural
3rd (So) ki.naati (Te) ki.nanti
2nd (Tva.m) ki.naasi (Tumhe) ki.naatha
1st (Aha.m) ki.naami (Maya.m) ki.naama

5. More vocabulary

Some verbs similarly declined are as follows:

N.B. It should be observed that the present tense verbal terminations remain constant. Only the vikara.na suffix, or the conjugational sign in between the root and the termination, shows variation.

6. Irregular forms

Attention should be paid to the following forms:

Present Tense Gerund/Absolutive Infinitive
jaanaati ~natvaa/jaanitvaa ~naatu.m
su.naati sutvaa/su.nitvaa sotu.m/su.nitu.m
paapu.naati/pappoti patvaa/paapu.nitvaa paapu.nitu.m/pappotu.m
ga.nhaati gahetvaa/ga.nhitvaa gahetu.m/ga.nhitu.m

7. Verbs to be/to do

The two verbs bhavati/hoti (to be) and karoti (to do) occur frequently in the language. Their gerunds and infinitives are as follows:

Gerund - bhavitvaa/hutvaa; katvaa
Infinitive - bhavitu.m/hotu.m; kaatu.m

The verb atthi (to be) from root as and karoti (to do) from root k.r are special verbs of frequent occurrence. They are conjugated as follows:

  Singular Plural
3rd atthi karoti santi karonti
2nd asi karosi attha karotha
1st asmi/amhi karomi asma/amha karoma

Exercise 13

Translate into English

  1. Buddho vihaarasmi.m sannipatantaana.m manussaana.m dhamma.m deseti.
  2. Buddhassa puujetu.m cintento upaasako pupphaani ocinaati.
  3. Te patte udakena puurentaa giita.m gaayanti.
  4. Tumhe ara~n~ne vasante mige pii.letvaa asappurisaa hotha.
  5. Maya.m aapa.na.m gantvaa vaa.nijehi saddhi.m kathetvaa dha~n~na.m vikki.naama.
  6. Tva.m u.d.denta.m suka.m disvaa ga.nhitu.m icchasi.
  7. Pabbatamhaa udenta.m canda.m passitu.m kumaaro gharamhaa dhaavati.
  8. Aha.m kassakehi saha khettasmi.m rukkhe ropemi.
  9. Maya.m amaccehi saha mantentaa paasaadasmi.m aasanesu nisiidaama.
  10. Tumhe Tathaagatassa saavake nimantetvaa daana.m detha.
  11. Upaasakaa vihaara.m gantvaa diipe jaaletvaa dhamma.m sotu.m nisiidanti.
  12. Luddako siisa.m (head) dussena chaadetvaa nisiiditvaa saku.ne maretu.m ussahati.
  13. So vane aahi.n.dante go.ne gaama.m aanetvaa vaa.nijaana.m vikki.naati.
  14. Tva.m aapa.nehi bha.n.daani ki.nitvaa saka.tena aanetvaa gehe .thapesi.
  15. Tumhe kakacehi rukkhe chinditvaa pabbatamhaa paatetha.
  16. Dhammena manusse paalentaa bhuupaalaa akusala.m parivajjenti.
  17. Sacca.m ~naatu.m icchanto aha.m sama.nehi pa~nhe pucchaami.
  18. Daana.m datvaa siila.m rakkhantaa sappurisaa saggaloka.m paapu.nanti.
  19. Dha~n~na.m minanto kassako aapa.na.m netvaa dha~n~na.m vikki.nitu.m cinteti.
  20. Aha.m pattena paaniiya.m pivanto dvaarasmi.m .thatva magga.m olokemi.
  21. So aapa.namhaa khiira.m ki.nitu.m putta.m pahi.naati.
  22. Maya.m dhamma.m ugga.nhitu.m ussahantaa pa.n.ditena saha mantema.
  23. Corehi saddhi.m gehe bhinditvaa manusse pii.lentaa tumhe asappurisaa hotha.
  24. Aha.m suva.n.na.m pariyesamaane diipamhaa aagacchante vaa.nije jaanaami.
  25. Aha.m aacariyo homi, tva.m vejjo hosi.
  26. Tva.m asappurisa, Buddhena desenta.m dhamma.m sutvaa sappuriso bhavitu.m ussahasi.
  27. Aha.m pa.n.ditehi saddhi.m mantento dhammena diipa.m paalento bhuupaalo asmi.
  28. Varaahe maarentaa coraa kassake pii.lentaa paapakammaani karonti.
  29. Siila.m rakkhantaa pu~n~nakammaani karontaa manussaa sagga.m pappotu.m aaka`nkhanti.
  30. Akusala.m pahaaya paapa.m parivajjetvaa viharantaa naraa sappurisaa bhavanti.

Translate into Paali

  1. Having picked fruits from the trees you send (them) to the market.
  2. Having heard the Buddha preach the doctrine I become glad.
  3. Thinking of collecting corn I go to the field with the farmer.
  4. Singing songs you (pl.) look at the birds flying in the sky.
  5. I advise the wicked man who oppresses the farmers in the village.
  6. We dig pits to plant trees in the park.
  7. We know the man who is lighting lamps in the monastery.
  8. You (pl.) cross the sea with sailors to reach the island.
  9. The king governing the island wins.
  10. We begin to learn the dhamma from recluses living in the village.
  11. Searching for the truth the wise man goes from city to city.
  12. Avoiding the sleeping dog with his foot the child runs home.
  13. Wishing to be born in heaven wise men fear to do evil.
  14. Departing from the human world wicked men are born in hell (narake).
  15. Having invited the hermit from the mountain the king gives him a robe.
  16. Trying to understand the truth lay devotees become recluses.
  17. Expecting to hear the monk preaching the dhamma lay devotees assemble in the monastery.
  18. We see with our eyes, hear with our ears (sotehi), touch with our bodies.
  19. I am the king governing the islands.
  20. You (pl.) are wicked men who take counsel with thieves.
  21. Good men begin to plant trees to protect the world.
  22. Having heard the dhamma, the thief wishes to avoid evil.
  23. Merchants keep clothes in shops to sell (them) to farmers coming from the villages.
  24. The sick man (gilaana) is a messenger of the gods in the human world.
  25. There are good men in the world who admonish wicked men.
  26. Having picked lotuses from the water, the doctor goes to the monastery to listen to the dhamma.
  27. Seeing the Buddha and being pleased the thief throws away the arrows.
  28. Wishing to avoid evil I practise virtue.
  29. We cook rice to give alms to the monks coming from the monastery.
  30. You (pl.) go from island to island searching for gold with merchants.