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- A Practical Grammar of the Pali Language
- An Elementary Pali Course
- The New Pali Course Part I
- The New Pali Course Part II
- The New Pali Course Part III
- Pali Primer
- Saddaniiti

.:in the solutions:.

- A New Course in Learning Pali
- An Elementary Pali Course
- Introduction to Pali (Detailed grammatical analysis)
- Introduction to Pali (Trilinear translation)
- The New Pali Course Part I
- The New Pali Course Part II
- Pali Primer

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A Practical Grammar of the Pāli Language

PrefaceContents

Abbreviation

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Appendix

For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

250. The numerals are as follows:

251. **Table of cardinals and ordinals**

Cardinals | Ordinals |

1. eka, one | pa.thama, first |

2. dve, two | dutiya, second |

3. tayo, three | tatiya, third |

4. cattaaro | catuttha, turiiya |

5. pa~nca | pa~ncatha, pa~ncama |

6. cha | cha.t.tha, chatthama |

7. satta | sattha, sattama |

8. a.t.tha | a.t.thama |

9. nava | navama |

10. dasa, rasa, lasa, .lasa | dasama |

11. ekaarasa, ekaadasa | ekarasama |

12. baarasa, dvaarasa | baarasama |

13. tedasa, terasa, telasa | tedasama |

14. catuddasa, cuddasa, coddasa | catuddasama |

15. pa~ncadasa, pa.n.narasa, pannarasa | pa~ncadasama |

16. so.lasa, sorasa | so.lasama |

17. sattadasa, sattarasa | sattadasama |

18. a.t.thaadasa, a.t.thaarasa | a.t.thaadasama |

19. ekuunaviisati, ekuunaviisa.m | ekuunaviisatima |

20. viisati, viisa.m | viisatima |

21. ekaviisati, ekaviisa.m | ekaviisatima |

22. dvaaviisati | dvaaviisatima |

23. teviisati | teviisatima |

24. catuviisati | catuviisatima |

25. pa~ncaviisati | pa~ncaviisatima |

26. chabbiisati | chabbiisatima |

27. sattabiisati, sattaviisati | sattabiisatima |

28. a.t.thaviisa.m | a.t.thaviisatima |

29. ekuunati.msati, ekuunati.msa.m | ekuunati.msatima |

30. ti.msati, ti.msa.m | ti.msatima |

31. ekati.msati | ekati.msatima |

32. dvatti.msati | dvatti.msatima |

40. cattaaliisa.m, cattaariisa.m | cattaalisatiima |

50. pa~n~naasa, pa~n~naasa.m | pa~n~naasama |

60. sa.t.thi | sa.t.thima |

70. sattati | sattatima |

80. asiiti | asiitima |

90. navuti | navutima |

100. sata.m | satama |

200. baasata.m, dvaasata.m | baasatama |

1000. sahassa.m | sahassama |

10,000. dasasahassa.m | dasasahassama |

10,000,000. ko.ti | ko.tima |

252. **(I) Cardinals**

253. Eka, one, is in the singular very often used in an indefinite sense, meaning: a certain, a; as, eko naaviko, a boatman, a certain boatman. ekaa kumaarikaa, a princess, a certain princess. In the plural, it means: some, as, eke purisaa, some men... ekaa maanusini, some women...

254. The cardinals, eka, taya and cattaaro are declined in the plural in the three genders; eka, alone of course, having singular forms.

255. ** Declension of eka, one**

Singular | |||

Masculine | Feminine | Neuter | |

Nom. | eko | ekaa | eka.m |

Gen. | ekassa | ekissaa, ekissaaya | ekassa |

Dat. | ekassa | ekissaa, ekissaaya | ekassa |

Acc. | eka.m | eka.m | eka.m |

Ins. | ekena | ekaaya | ekena |

Abl. | ekasmaa, ekamhaa | ekaaya | ekasmaa, ekamhaa |

Loc. | ekasmi.m, ekamhi | ekaaya, ekissa.m | ekasmi.m, ekamhi |

Voc. | eka | eke | eka |

Plural | |||

Masculine | Feminine | Neuter | |

Nom. | eke | ekaa, ekaayo | ekaani |

Gen. | ekesa.m | ekaasa.m | ekesa.m |

Dat. | ekesa.m | ekaasa.m | ekesa.m |

Acc. | eke | ekaa, ekaayo | ekaani |

Ins. | ekehi, ekebhi | ekaahi, ekhaabhi | ekehi, ekebhi |

Abl. | ekehi, ekebhi | ekaahi, ekhaabhi | ekehi, ekebhi |

Loc. | ekesu | ekaasu | ekesu |

Voc. | eke | ekaa, ekaayo | ekaani |

**Remarks.** The above declension is
chiefly pronominal. (See Pronouns, Chapter IX)

256. ** Declension of tayo, three**

Plural (No Singular) | |||

Masculine | Feminine | Neuter | |

Nom. | tayo | tisso | ti.ni |

Gen. | ti.n.na.m, ti.n.nanna.m | tissanna.m, tissa.m | ti.n.na.m, ti.n.nanna.m |

Dat. | ti.n.na.m, ti.n.nanna.m | tissanna.m, tissa.m | ti.n.na.m, ti.n.nanna.m |

Acc. | tayo | tisso | tii.ni |

Ins. | tiihi, tiibhi | tiihi, tiibhi | tiihi, tiibhi |

Abl. | tiihi, tiibhi | tiihi, tiibhi | tiihi, tiibhi |

Loc. | tiisu | tiisu | tiisu |

257. ** Declension of cattaaro, caturo, four**

Masculine | Feminine | Neuter | |

Nom. | cattaaro, caturo | catasso | cattaari |

Gen. | catunna.m | catassanna.m, cattassa.m | catunna.m |

Dat. | catunna.m | catassanna.m, cattassa.m | catunna.m |

Acc. | cattaaro, caturo | catasso | cattaari |

Ins. | catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi | catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi | catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi |

Abl. | catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi | catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi | catubbhi, catuuhi, catuubhi |

Loc. | catuusu | catuusu | catuusu |

258. (a) In composition, the base of tayo, is ti, as, tilokahitada, bestowing benefits on the three worlds.

(b) Not seldom, tri also is met with: trikumbhanagara.m, the "three-Hillock-City" (Rangoon).

(c) The base of cattaaro in composition is catu before a consonant, the consonant being often reduplicated; and catur before a vowel: catumukho, having four faces. catuppado, a quadruped. catuparisa.m, the four assemblies. catura`ngii (catu-r-a`ngii), having four divisions. caturasso (catu-r-asso), having four corners, quadrangular.

259. The Dual has completely disappeared in Paali; the only two vestiges that have come down to us being dve or duve, two, and ubho, both. But even in these two words, the student will remark that the inflection of the plural has almost entirely superseded that of the dual.

260. Dve or duve and ubho, are of the three genders, and used in the plural only.

Dve, Two | Ubho, Both | |

Nom. | dve, duve | ubho, ubhe |

Gen. | dvinna.m, duvinna.m | ubhinna.m |

Dat. | dvinna.m, duvinna.m | ubhinna.m |

Acc. | dve, duve | ubho, ubhe |

Ins. | dviihi, dviibhi | ubhohi, ubhobhi, ubhehi, ubhebhi |

Abl. | dviihi, dviibhi | ubhohi, ubhobhi, ubhehi, ubhebhi |

Loc. | dviisu | ubhosu, ubhesu |

261. (a) The base of dve, duve in composition is dvi and also di, du and dve: dvijo, twice born, a brahmin. dvijivho, double-tongued, a snake. dvipo, drinking twice, an elephant. dipado, two-legged, a biped. digu.no, two-fold. duvidho, of two kinds. dvebhuumako, having two stories. dvepakkho, two factions or parties.

(b) dva, dvaa are also used as the bases of dve, but chiefly in composition with other numbers: dvattikkhatu.m (dva-ti-khattu.m), two or three times. dvati.msati, thirty two. dvaasa.t.thi, sixty-two. dvaaviisati, twenty-two.

(c) baa is similarly used as a base. baarasa, baadasa, twelve. baaviisati, twenty-two.

262. Pa~nca, five, is, like dve, of the three genders. It is declined as follows:

Nom. | pa~nca |

Gen. | pa~ncanna.m |

Dat. | pa~ncanna.m |

Acc. | pa~nca |

Ins. | pa~ncahi |

Abl. | pa~ncahi |

Loc. | pa~ncasu |

263. The other numbers up to 18 included, are also of the three genders, and are declined as follows:

Nom., Acc. & Voc. | Gen. & Dat. | Ins. & Abl. | Loc. |

six, cha | channa.m | chahi | chasu |

seven, satta | sattanna.m | sattahi | sattasu |

eight, a.t.tha | a.t.thanna.m | a.t.thahi | a.t.thasu |

nine, nava | navanna.m | navahi | navasu |

ten, dasa | dasanna.m | dasahi | dasasu |

264. The numerals from 11 to 18 are declined in exactly the same way.

265. Here it must be observed that 10 has three forms: dasa, rasa, lasa, the last two being used only in composition with other numerals; .lasa is also found.

266. The numerals from 19 to 99 are feminine; as they are formed by prefixing the numerals from 1 to 9 to the decades, the decades are here given separately.

20. viisati, viisa |

30. ti.msati, ti.msa |

40. cattaaliisa, cattaalisa, cattaarisa, taalisa, taalisa |

50. pa~n~naasa, pa.n.naasa |

60. sa.t.thi |

70. sattati |

80. asiti |

90. navuti |

267. The numerals ending in i are declined like the feminines in i (jaati, ratti).

268. Those in a take in the Nom. sometimes the form in aa, like ka~n~naa, but usually they assume in the Nom. neuter form in a.m.

269. The following will serve as a model for the declension of numerals from 20 to 99:

**Declension of viisati, 20**

Nom. & Voc. | Acc. | Gen. & Dat. | Ins. & Abl. | Loc. |

1st form: viisa.m, viisa | visa.m | visaaya | visaaya | visaaya, visaaya.m |

2nd form: viisati | viisati.m | visatiyaa | visatiyaa | visatiyaa, visatiya.m |

**Remarks.** Numerals in i follow the 2nd form and those in a the 1st form.

270. To express full decades but one, as 19, 29, 39, etc: ekuuna (eka, one + uuna, deficient by) is prefixed to the decades, as: ekuunaviisati, 19, viz., 20 deficient by one. ekuunati.msa, 29 viz. 30 deficient by one, etc.

271. The very high numerals as, ko.ti, ten millions, pako.ti, one hundred billions, etc., are declined like viisati.

272. Sata.m 100, sahassa.m 1000, lakha.m 100,000, are neuter substantives, and therefore declined as such on the model of ruupa.m (124).

273. ** (II) Ordinals**

274. The ordinals are formed from the cardinals, from 5 upwards, by means of the suffix ma:

Cardinals | Ordinals |

5. pa~nca | pa~ncama, 5th |

6. cha | chama, 6th |

7. satta | sattama, 7th |

8. a.t.tha | a.t.thama, 8th, etc. |

275. Ordinals 5th, 6th and 7th, have two forms: ...

5th, pa~ncatha, pa~ncama |

6th, cha.t.tha, cha.t.thama |

7th, sattha, sattama |

276. From 5 upwards, the ordinals form their feminine by means of suffix ii (181, 2) and their neuter is formed in a.m. They are therefore declined like devo, nadii and ruupa.m.

Masc. Nom. | Fem. Nom. | Neut. Nom. |

pa~ncamo | pa~ncamii | pa~ncama.m |

cha.t.thamo | cha.t.thamii | cha.t.thama.m |

sattamo | sattamii | sattama.m |

a.t.thamo | a.t.thamii | a.t.thama.m, etc. |

277. From 11 upwards, however, the cardinals themselves are not seldom used as ordinals; so that we have the choice of two forms, and can say either,

ekaarasa, 11th, or ekaarasama, 11th.

pa~ncadasa, 15th, or pa~ncadasama, 15th.

catuviisati 24th, or catuviisatima, 24th, etc.

278. The first four ordinals are as follows:

Masc. Nom. | Fem. Nom. | Neut. Nom. |

pa.thamo | pa.thamaa | pa.thama.m |

dutiyo | dutiyaa | dutiya.m |

tatiyo | tatiyaa | tatiya.m |

catuttho | catutthaa | catuttha.m |

**Remarks.** They are consequently declined like deva,
ka~n~naa and ruupa.m.

279. **(III) Adverbial derivatives from numerals**

280. Many important adverbs are derived from numerals by means of some suffixes.

281. By means of suffix dhaa are formed adverbs signifying: ways, times, fold and sometimes kinds.

ekadhaa, once.

dvidhaa, in two ways; in two; of
two kinds.

tidhaa, in three ways; three-fold, in three parts.

282. The word gu.na, though not a suffix, is often employed like dhaa with the meanings of times, fold. In the sense of times, it generally takes the neuter form in a.m.

dasagu.na.m, ten times; or ten-fold.

tigu.na.m,
three times; or three-fold.

catugu.na.m, four times; or, four-fold.

**Remarks.** In
the sense of fold, the compound being an adjective, is treated as such and is
declined like deva, ka~n~naa and ruupa.m.

283. dhaa is also used in the same way after a few adjectives:

bahudhaa, in
many ways.

anekadhaa, in more than one way.

284. Distributive adverbs are formed from numerals by means of suffix so (Sansk. ïas).

ekaso, one by one.

pa~ncaso, five by five.

285. From khattu.m, multiplicative adverbs are formed.

dvikkhattu.m,
twice.

sattakkhattu.m, seven times.

satasahassakkhattu.m, one hundred thousand
times.

286. The two following suffixes, from substantives and adjectives ka and ya, form collective nouns and adjectives.

catukka, four-fold, consisting of
four, a collection of four things; a place where four roads meet.

dvaya, of two
sorts, consisting of two a pair.

dvika, duka, consisting of two, a pair.

tika, taya, tayi, consisting of three, a triad, etc.

287. There is an adverb, meaning once, at once, never used in composition with numerals, it is saki.m, (Sansk, sak.rt). When used before words beginning with a vowel it sometimes takes the forms sakid or sakad.

saki.m
passanto, seeing (him) once.

saki.m yeva, at once, simultaneously.

sakid eva, at
once, simultaneously.

sakadaagamii (aagami), returning once only.