Tipitaka Network :: Pāḷi Synthesis
.:on the shelves:.
.:in the solutions:.
- A New Course in Learning Pali
- An Elementary Pali Course
- Introduction to Pali (Detailed grammatical analysis)
- Introduction to Pali (Trilinear translation)
- The New Pali Course Part I
- The New Pali Course Part II
- Pali Primer
The Pali Collective
Developed and supported by PaliLogix.
Oops! RSS input from Yahoo! Groups is currently not available.
The New Pali Course Book 1
53. The Past Participles are formed in many ways. Their formation
will be shown in the second book; only a few examples are given here.
- gata = gone
- aagata = come
- kata = done, made
- vutta = told, said
- bhinna = broken
- oti.n.na = descended
- aaha.ta = brought
- paha.ta = beaten
- ha.ta = carried
- mata = dead
- sutta, sayita = slept
- .thita = stood
- nisinna = sat
- vuttha = lived
- da.t.tha = bitten
- pakka, pacita = cooked
- laddha = received
- kiita = bought
- bhutta = eaten
- vandita = worshipped
- hata = killed
- chinna = cut
- kuddha = enraged
N.B. -- These Participles are often used as complements of
verbs, e.g., So Kaalakato (hoti) = he is dead. Sometimes the verb is
"To" in the Sense of Ablative of Separation
54. Suffix "to" is sometimes added to the nominal bases to denote
the ablative of separation. There is no distinction between the
singular and plural in that form. These are included in the
- rukkhato = from the tree or trees
- gaamato = from the village or villages
- purisato = from the man or men
- tato = from there, (therefore)
- kuto = from where?
- sabbato = from everywhere
Translate into English
- Hiiyo ara~n~na.m gato so puriso ahinaa da.t.tho mari.
- Rukkhato oti.n.naa pakkhii daarakena sakkharaahi hataa honti.
- Purisena pharasunaa chinno so rukkho tassa gehassa upari pati.
- Gaamato nikkhantaa* taa gaaviyo khette ti.na.m khaaditvaa vaapito jala.m pivissanti.
- Vaa.nijehi nagarato aaha.taani bha.n.daani imesu gaamesu manussehi kiitaani (honti).
- Taaya ka~n~naaya pakka.m odana.m a.tavito aagataa tassaa bhaataro bhu~njitvaa sayissanti.
- Pitaaraa vutta.m anussarantii** saa yuvatii taaya laddha.m dhana.m ga.nhitu.m na icchi.
- Ekena hatthinaa chinna.m saakha.m a~n~naa hatthiniyo gahetvaa khaadi.msu.
- Kuto tumhehi imaani vatthaani taani padumaani ca kiitaani?
- Kuddho so bhuupati tasmi.m nagare vutthe sabbe manusse tato niihari***.
- Sappena da.t.tho vaa.nijassa putto tassa daasehi ekassa vejjassa**** santika.m niito***** hoti.
- Idha imasmi.m pii.the nisinna.m kumaari.m gehato aagataa a~n~naa daarikaa pahari.
- Taaya paha.taa saa ka~n~naa tassaa maatuyaa santika.m gataa rodantii a.t.thaasi.
- Magge gacchantaa te purisaa taaya dhenuyaa bhinna.m gha.ta.m****** passi.msu.
- Bhuupati tehi manussehi kataani gehaani passitvaa tesa.m muula.m adaasi.
* That have come out.
**** Vejja (m) doctor, physician.
****** Gha.ta (m) water-pot.
Translate into Pali
- The peacock, having descended from the tree, has gone now to the rock.
- Having been bitten by a serpent the boy was carried to a physician.
- This woman does not like to take the money recieved from her sister.
- The man who has come* from that village bought (some) goods from this market.
- Remembering his mother's words the boy did not go to the dead man.
- My aunt's cows will come out of the forest and will eat the grass mowed and brought by the slave woman.
- Having seen a man sleeping on the bed the householder told his boys not to go near him.
- A deer was seen by the maiden who was cooking rice** for her mother.
- The rice that was cooked by her is given to beggars and crows.
- The house made by them was broken by an elephant.
- The enraged king killed all men who came to the city.
- The branch broken by the elephant fell on the ground, and afterwards your cows ate its leaves.
- The garland received from the queen by that girl is given to another girl.
- The rice given to them was eaten by the slaves and the beggars.
- The horse bought by the millionaire is carried by a charioteer.
* Has come = aagata.
** Who was cooking rice = bhatta.m pacantiyaa.
55. Pronominal (§47) and verbal adjectives (§50)
are shown above. Ordinary adjectives are seta (=white), rassa (=short),
mahanta (=big), and so on. As the adjectives qualify nouns, which are
of different genders and numbers, they must agree with their
substantives in gender, number and case.
||(= The red ox eats some short grasses.)
||(= The fair girl wears a blue cloth.)
Here is a list of adjectives which are frequently used:
- khuddaka = small
- mahanta = big, huge
- diigha = long
- rassa = short, dwarf
- ucca = high, tall
- niica = low, vulgar
- majjhima = medium
- appaka = few, a little
- bahu, bahuka = many, much
- aama = unripe
- pakka = ripe
- dahara = young
- mahallaka = elderly, old
- vitthata = wide, broad
- seta = white
- niila = blue
- ratta = red
- kaa.la = black
- piita = yellow
- uttaana = shallow
- gambhiira = deep
- khara = rough, coarse
- mudu = soft
- baala = foolish, young
- pa.n.dita = wise
- balavantu = powerful
- dubbala = feeble
- suruupa, dassaniiya = beautiful, handsome
56. The declension of adjectives will present no difficulties
to the student who has mastered the declension of nouns.
The declension of verbal and pronominal adjectives and those
of ending in -vantu and -mantu is given above. The others are declined
like nouns (in various genders) according to their endings.
For instance: diigha, rassa and others ending in -a of the
above list are declined in the masculine like nara, and in the neuter
like nayana. In the feminine they lengthened their last vowel, and are
declined like vanitaa.
Those ending in -u, such as bahu and mudu are declined like
garu, dhenu and cakkhu. Sometimes these, ending in -u, add kaa to their
feminine stem, and then they are declined like vanitaa, e.g., mudu =
mudukaa, bahu = bahukaa.
The words ending in ii, like maalii (one who has a garland),
take -inii instead of ii in forming feminine stems, e.g.,
(Masculine) maalii ... (Feminine) maalinii
Maalinii and such others are declined like kumaarii.
Translate into English
- Rattaa gaaviyo khette aahi.ndantiyo bahu.m ti.na.m khaadi.msu.
- Uccaa kumaarii niila.m vattha.m paridahitvaa* mahanta.m nagara.m gamissati.
- Bahavo manussaa diighaahi rajjuuhi setaa dhenuyo bandhitvaa gambhiira.m nadi.m hari.msu.
- Amhaaka.m bahuuna.m bandhavaana.m puttaa dubbalaa honti**.
- Pa.n.ditassa purisassa saa baalaa bhaginii pakkaani phalaani ocinitvaa appakaana.m daarakaana.m adaasi.
- Tassaa mahallikaaya itthiyaa daharo nattaa uttaane jale nahaayati.
- Tasmi.m ucce rukkhe .thito vaanaro imasmi.m niice tarumhi nisinne pakkhino oloketi.
- Maalinii naarii rassena maggena khuddaka.m gaama.m gacchi.
- Daharaa ka~n~naa mudunaa hatthena rattaani padumaani ga.nhaati.
- Balavanto appaka.m pi dhana.m labhitvaa dubbale manusse pii.lenti.
- Balavantaa kaa.laa go.naa uccesu giriisu aahi.n.ditvaa bahuuni ti.naani khaadanti.
- Bahunna.m*** baalaana.m puttaa tassaa nadiyaa gambhiire jale patitvaa mari.msu.
- Mama bhaataraana.m majjhimo niice pii.the nisiiditvaa aama.m phala.m khaadati.
- Maya.m suve majjhima.m vaapi.m gantvaa setaani padumaani niilaani uppalaani**** ca aaharissaama.
- Tumhe mahallake dubbale ca purise disvaa maa hasatha.
* Paridahati (v) wears.
** Hoti (v) is.
*** There are two forms: "bahuuna.m" and "bahunna.m".
**** Uppala (n) lily.
Translate into Pali
- A white cow drank much water from that big tank.
- Wearing red clothes many girls are going to the big market in that large city.
- The sons of that elderly woman are neither powerful nor rich*.
- Our young ones always like to eat many unripe fruits.
- That foolish woman went to that long river and fell in its deep water.
- Water in this pond is not deep but shallow.
- My old (elderly) aunt brought a long rope to bind that red cow.
- The powerful man cut many tall and dwarf trees in that small garden.
- Sitting on a low chair the young girl eats a ripe mango** she got from her mother.
- Much grass is brought by the slaves from that small field on the bank of that wide river.
- White lotuses and blue lilies are bought by that feeble maiden from the elderly man.
- The black oxen are sleeping on the rough ground near that high mountain.
- The young boy's soft hand is burnt by the flame of that small lamp.
- Many people will cross the great ocean and come to see this beautiful little island.
- In this beautiful city there are big houses, wide streets, long paths, and many gardens.
* Neither ... nor = "vaa ... na": balavanto vaa dhanavanto vaa na honti.
** Mango (m,n) amba.