The New Pali Course Book 1
67. The verbs given so far in this book are of the Active Voice. To
form the passive, one must add "ya", sometimes preceded by i or ii, to
the root before the verbal termination, e.g.,
- paca + ti > paca + iiya + ti = paciiyati (is cooked)
- kara + ti > kara + iiya + ti = kariiyati (is done)
Often, the "ya" is assimilated by the last consonant of the base, e.g.,
- pac + ya + ti = paccati (is cooked)
- vuc + ya + ti = vuccati (is told)
68. In forming a sentence with a verb in the passive voice, the
subject stands in the Ablative of Agent and the object in the
Nominative. The verb takes the number and the person of the Nominative
This is the way Pali grammarians stated it. But in English, the
subject always take the Nominative form; therefore the object becomes
the subject when a sentence is turned from active to passive.
Vanitaa odana.m pacati.
turned into passive, becomes:-
Vanitaaya odano paciiyati (or paccati).
Here, "vanitaaya" is named anuttakattaa (the agent, subject) and "odano" uttakamma (the object in the Nominative) in Pali.
69. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)
Present Tense, Passive
||(so) paccati = it is cooked
||(te) paccanti = they are cooked
||(tva.m) paccasi = thou are cooked
||(tumhe) paccatha = you are cooked
||(aha.m) paccaami = I am cooked
||(maya.m) paccaama = we are cooked
Conjugation of Pahara (to beat)
||(so) pahariiyati = he is beaten
||(te) pahariiyanti = they are beaten
||(tva.m) pahariiyasi = thou art beaten
||(tumhe) pahariiyatha = you are beaten
||(aha.m) pahariiyaami = I am beaten
||(maya.m) pahariiyaama = we are beaten
The following are conjugated like "pahariiyati":-
- kariiyati = is done or made
- ga.nhiiyati = is taken
- hariiyati = is carried
- aahariiyati = is brought
- bandhiiyati = is tied
- bhu~njiiyati = is eaten
- aaka.d.dhiiyati = is dragged or drawn
- diiyati = is given
- kasiiyati = is ploughed
- desiiyati = is preached
- maariiyati = is killed
- vandiiyati = is worshipped
- ki.niiyati = is bought
- vikki.niiyati = is sold
- rakkhiiyati = is protected
- bhaasiiyati = is told
- dhoviiyati = is washed
Translate into English
- Ka~n~naaya odano paciiyati.
- Te Go.naa daasehi pahariiyanti.
- Tva.m balinaa purisena aaka.d.dhiiyasi.
- Maya.m amhaaka.m ariihi maariiyaama.
- Te migaa taaya daasiyaa bandhiiyanti.
- Iminaa va.d.dhakinaa* imasmi.m gaame bahuuni gehaani kariiyanti.
- Tumhe tasmi.m gaame manussehi bandhiiyatha.
- Amhaaka.m bha.n.daani tesa.m daasehi gaama.m hariiyanti.
- A.t.thahi vaa.nijehi cattaaro assaa nagara.m aahariiyanti.
- Maya.m amhaaka.m dhiitarehi nattaarehi ca vandiiyaama.
- Ta.m mahanta.m khetta.m pa~ncahi kassakehi kasiiyati.
- Vanitaaya bahuuni vatthaani tassa.m pokkhara.niya.m dhoviiyanti.
- Se.t.thinaa bahunna.m yaacakaana.m daana.m diiyati.
- Tasmi.m aaraame vasantehi bhikkhuuhi siilaani rakkhiiyanti.
- Chahi bhikkhuuhi pa~ncasataana.m manussaana.m dhammo desiiyati.
- Pa~n~naasaaya manussehi tasmi.m aapa.ne bahuuni bha.n.daani ki.niiyanti.
- Dasahi vanitaahi dvisata.m ambaana.m vikki.niiyati.
- Daasiyaa pakko odano gahapatinaa bhu~njiiyati.
- Magge .thito daarako tassa maatuyaa hatthehi ga.nhiiyati.
- Buddhena devaana.m manussaana~nca dhammo bhaasiiyati.
* Va.d.dhakii (m) carpenter.
Translate into Pali
- The cows are tied with long ropes by the slaves.
- Two black horses are bought by the two rich men.
- You are beaten by four men.
- This house is built (made) by eight carpenters.
- Nine cows are killed by two tigers in that forest.
- Thou art dragged to the field by those powerful men.
- Many goods are sold in this village by those two merchants.
- You are tied fast by the people of the city.
- The baby is carried to a physician by his mother.
- The rice is well cooked by the second daughter of the merchant.
- The doctrine is preached to the people of this village by the monks residing in that monastery*.
- The rice cooked by the slave woman is eaten by her son and brothers.
- Many red clothes are washed in the tank by those women.
- Three hundred mangoes are sold by six tall women.
- Much wealth is given to his relations by that rich man.
- All grass in this field is eaten by eight oxen and four cows.
- The Buddha is worshipped everywhere in this island.
- Two fields are ploughed by 12 farmers and six oxen.
- Those who went by that path are killed by a lion.
- The son of the man who walks on the road is beaten by that powerful man.
* Vihaara (m) monastery.
70. The past and future forms of the Passive Voice are formed by
adding "ii + ya" to the root before the verbal termination, e.g.,
Past 3rd singular:
- pahara + ii > pahara + ii-ya + ii = pahariiyii = (he) was beaten
Future 3rd singular:
- paca + issati > paca + ii-ya + issati = paciiyissati = (it) will be cooked
71. The participles, like verbs, are divided into two classes, that
of Active and Passive. The Active Present Participles are shown above
(§50). The Passive Present Participle is formed by adding "ii + ya" to
the root before the active termination, e.g.,
(1) paca + maana > paca + ii-ya + maana = paciiyamaana = being cooked
(2) pahara + nta > pahara + ii-ya + nta = pahariiyanta = being beaten
Forms like pacamaana (being cooked) and vuccamaana (being told) also
are formed by assimilating "ya" with the last consonant of the root.
(The rules of assimilation will be given in the Second Book.)
72. The Declinable Active Past Participles are very few. The Passive
Past Participles are formed in various ways; the most common way to
form them is to add "ta" or "ita" to the root or the verbal base, e.g.,
- paca + ita = pacita (cooked)
- hara + ita = harita (carried)
- nahaa + ita = nahaata (bathed)
- nii + ta = niita (carried)
- naa + ta = ~naata (known)
- bhuu + ta = bhuuta (become, been)
- su + ta = suta (heard)
Here one notices that "ita" is added to the roots ending in a, and
ta is added to the roots ending in vowels other than a. But this rule
is not without exceptions.
A list of some Passive Past Participles is given above (§53).
The words therein are formed in various ways; but the student should
not bother at present about their formation.
Another form of Passive Past Participles much common in use is
formed by adding 'inna' to the root and by dropping the last syllable
or the vowel of the root, e.g.,
- chida + inna = chinna (cut)
- bhida + inna = bhinna (broken)
- daa + inna = dinna (given)
- tara + inna = ti.n.na (crossed, gone ashore)
- ni + siida + inna = nisinna (sat)
73. The Potential (or Future) Passive Participles are formed by adding 'tabba' and 'aniiya' to the verbal base, e.g.,
- kaatabba / kara.niiya (must be, fit to be, or should be done)
- haritabba / haraniiya (must be, fit to be, or should be carried)
- pacitabba / pacaniiya (must be, fit to be, or should be cooked)
- bhu~njitabba (fit to be or should be eaten)
- dhovitabba (fit to be or should be washed)
- bhavitabba (fit to be or should become or happen)
- nisiiditabba (fit to be or should be sat)
- vattabba (fit to be or should be told)
- vanditabba (fit to be or should be worshipped)
- daatabba (fit to be or should be given)
- chinditabba (fit to be or should be cut)
- rakkhitabba (fit to be or should be observed or protected)
- ugga.nhitabba (fit to be or should be learnt)
Translate into English
- Ka~n~naaya bhu~njiyamaana.m bhatta.m sunakhassa daatabba.m (hoti).
- Purisena chindiyamaano rukkho gehassa upari patissati.
- Purisehi khettaani kasitabbaani, vanitaahi tesa.m bhatta.m pacitabba.m.
- Puttehi dhiitarehi ca pitaro maataro ca vanditabbaa honti.
- Daasena hariiyamaano asso vaa.nijaana.m vikki.nitabbo hoti.
- Corehi pahariiyamaanaa purisaa a~n~na.m kattabba.m adisvaa* a.tavi.m dhaavi.msu.
- Saarathinaa pahariiyamaano asso ratha.m aaka.d.dhanto siigha.m dhaavati.
- Tumhehi daanaani daatabbaani, siilani rakkhitabbaani, pu~n~naani kaatabbaani (honti).
- Sissehi dhammo sotabbo** satthaani*** ugga.nhitabbaani.
- Mayaa diiyamaana.m**** bhu~njitabba.m bhu~njitu.m bahuu yaacakaa aagacchanti.
- Vanitaa dhovitabbaani vatthaani aadaaya vitthata.m nadi.m gamissati.
- Yuvatiyo vandaniiyaani cetiyaani disvaa ekaaya ka~n~naaya ociniyamaanaani padumaani yaaci.msu.
- Mama bhaataa tasmi.m vane aahi.n.danto chindaniiye bahuu rukkhe passi.
- Mayaa ovadiyamaano baalo vattabba.m apassanto khinno***** nisiidi.
* Not seeing.
** Should be heard.
**** Given by.
Translate into Pali
- The fruit that is being eaten by the boy should not be given to another one.
- The field should be ploughed by the farmers with their oxen.
- Being beaten by an enemy and not knowing what should be done*, the man ran across the field.
- Many beggars came to receive the alms given by the rich merchant.
- Your parents** are to be worshipped and protected by you.
- Being admonished*** by the teacher the student began to learn what should be learnt.
- The horses that are being carried by the merchants are to be sold tomorrow.
- Ths horse being beaten by the slave ran quickly to the field.
- Precepts should be oberved and alms should be given by you.
- Many clothes are to be washed by our friends.
- Ten men cut many trees that should be cut in that garden.
- The trees which are being cut by them will fall on other trees.
- The merchants did not get any food that should be eaten by them.
- What should happen will happen**** to us and the others.
- The rice is to be cooked and carried to the field by us.
* Kim kaatabban ti ajaananto.
** Maataapitaro (is a compound noun).
**** Bhavissati = will happen.
Causal or Causative Verbs
74. Causative verbs are formed by adding to the root the suffixes,
(1) e, (2) aya, (3) aape, or (4) aapaya, before the verbal termination.
The radical vowel of the root is lengthened or changed before these
suffixes, when it is followed by one consonant, and remains unchanged
if it is followed by a double consonant, e.g.,
- pac + e + ti = paaceti (causes to cook)
- pac + aya + ti = paacayati (causes to cook)
- pac + aape + ti = paacaapeti (causes to cook)
- pac + aapaya + ti = paacaapayati (causes to cook)
N.B. -- There is a similarity between 'paaceti', 'paacayati' and
'coreti', 'corayati'; but the former are causal and the latter are
75. The group of verbs 'coreti', etc., called Curaadi Group (see §15), always take 'e' and 'aya' in their simple forms and their causal bases are formed with 'aape' and 'aapaya', e.g.,
- Simple: coreti, corayati = steals
- Causal: coraapeti, coraapayati = causes to steal
76. (A) Intransitive verbs become transitive when they take causal forms, e.g.,
- Daarako sayati. (The baby sleeps.)
- Maataa daaraka.m sayaapeti. (The mother makes her baby sleep.)
(B) Transitive verbs take one or two more objects in their causal forms, e.g.,
- Simple: Go.no ti.na.m khaadati.
- Causal: Daaso go.na.m ti.na.m khaadaapeti. (The slave causes the ox to eat grass.)
77. A list of causatives
- kaaraapeti = causes to (or makes one) do
- ga.nhaapeti = causes to (or makes one) take
- nahaapeti = causes to (or makes one) bathe
- bhojaapeti = causes to (or makes one) eat
- nisiidaapeti = causes to (or makes one) sit
- haraapeti = causes to (or makes one) carry
- aaharaapeti = causes to (or makes one) bring
- gacchaapeti = causes to (or makes one) go
- chindaapeti = causes to (or makes one) cut
- maaraapeti = causes to (or makes one) kill
Translate into English
- Se.t.thii va.d.dhaki.m geha.m kaaraapeti.
- Maataa daaraka.m pokkhara.niya.m nahaapessati.
- Amhaaka.m pitaro bhikkhuu bhojaapesu.m.
- Vanitaayo daasi.m bhatta.m paacaapesu.m.
- Paapakaarino daasehi* bahuu mige maaraapenti.
- Gahapatayo purisehi* daaruuni ga.nhaapenti.
- Garu sisse dhamma.m ugga.nhaapesi.
- Adhipati purisehi rukkhe chindaapessati.
- Aha.m ka~n~naahi bha.n.daani aaharaapessaami.
- Tumhe bhaatarehi kapayo gaama.m haraapetha.
- Maya.m dasahi go.nehi khetta.m kasaapessaama.
- Maataa putta.m pii.the nisiidaapetvaa bhatta.m pacitu.m ta.n.dule** aaharaapesi.
* Instrumental is also used with the causal forms.
** ta.n.dula (m, n) (uncooked) rice.
Translate into Pali
- The sinner causes his brothers to kill birds.
- The rich men make their sons gave alms.
- The king makes the carpenters build five houses.
- The charioteer makes the slave bring two horses near the chariot.
- The women get their daughters cook rice for the guests.
- The carpenter gets the work* done by the servants.
- The leader gets his men cut many trees in his garden.
- They will get the field ploughed by 20 oxen.
- I will make my son eat some food.
- We will cause our slaves to go to the town.
- They make the cows eat grass.
- Do not allow him do that work*.
* work = kamma (n), kammanta (m).