Tipitaka Network :: Pāḷi Synthesis
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- A New Course in Learning Pali
- An Elementary Pali Course
- Introduction to Pali (Detailed grammatical analysis)
- Introduction to Pali (Trilinear translation)
- The New Pali Course Part I
- The New Pali Course Part II
- Pali Primer
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1. The Optative or the Potential Mood
The optative expresses mainly probability and advice, and ideas such as those
conveyed by if, might, would, etc. It is formed by adding -eyya to the verbal
base before terminations.
Base: paca = to cook
||(So) paceyya = If he would cook
||(Te) paceyyu.m = If they would cook
||(Tva.m) paceyyaasi = If you would cook
||(Tumhe) paceyyaatha = If you would cook
||(Aha.m) paceyyaami = If I would cook
||(Maya.m) paceyyaama = If we would cook
It should be observed that the terminations of the second and first persons
are similar to those of the present tense.
The following particles are useful for construction of sentences.
- sace/yadi = if
- ca = and
- pi = too, also
- na = not
- viya = like, similar
3. Examples in sentence formation
- Sace so bhatta.m paceyya, aham bhu~njeyyaami.
If he would cook rice I will eat.
- Sace tva.m iccheyyaasi, aha.m cora.m puccheyyaami.
If you would like, I will question the thief.
- Yadi aha.m nagare vihareyyaami, so pi nagara.m aagaccheyya.
If I dwell in the city, he too would come to the city.
- Sace te bhatta.m paceyyu.m, maya.m bhu~njeyyaama.
If they cook rice we will eat.
- Sace tumhe iccheyyaatha, maya.m core puccheyyaama.
If you so wish, we will question the thieves.
- Yadi maya.m nagare vihareyyaama, te pi nagara.m aagaccheyyu.m.
If we dwell in the city, they too will come to the city.
Translate into English
- Sace tva.m dhamma.m su.neyyaasi, addhaa (certainly) tva.m Buddhassa
- Yadi te giitaani gaayitu.m ugga.nheyyu.m, aha.m pi ugga.nheyyaami.
- Sace tva.m biijaani pahi.neyyaasi, kassako taani (them) khette vapeyya.
- Sace tumhe padumaani ocineyyaatha, kumaaraa taani Buddhassa puujeyyu.m.
- Sace tva.m muula.m ga.nheyyaasi, aha.m dussa.m aadadeyyaami.
- Yadi maya.m bhuupaalena saha manteyyaama amaccaa na aagaccheyyu.m.
- Sace tumhe rukkhe ropeyyaatha daarakaa phalaani bhu~njeyyu.m.
- Sace maya.m sappurisaa bhaveyyaama, puttaa pi sappurisaa bhaveyyu.m.
- Sace bhuupaalaa dhammena diipe paaleyyu.m, maya.m bhuupaalesu
- Sace kassako go.na.m vikki.neyya, vaa.nijo ta.m ki.neyya.
- Sace manusse pii.lentaa asappurisaa gaama.m aagaccheyyu.m aha.m te
- Yadi amaccaa paapa.m parivajeyyu.m, manussaa paapa.m na kareyyu.m.
- Sace tumhe pabbata.m aaruheyyaatha, aahi.n.dante mige ca rukkhesu carante
makka.te ca u.d.dente saku.ne ca passeyyaatha.
- Sace tva.m pattena paaniiya.m aaneyyaasi pipaasito (thirsty) so piveyya.
- Kusalakammaani katvaa tumhe manussaloke uppajitu.m ussaheyyaatha.
- Sace so vejjo bhaveyya, aha.m ta.m (him) rodanta.m daaraka.m passitu.m
- Yadi putto paapa.m kareyya aha.m ta.m (him) ovadeyyaami.
- Sace amacco pa.n.dita.m aacariya.m aaneyya maya.m dhamma.m ugga.nheyyaama.
- Sace aha.m hatthena suva.m phusitu.m ussaheyyaami so gehaa uppateyya.
- Yadi so vejja.m pakkositu.m iccheyya aha.m ta.m (him) aaneyyaami.
Translate into Paali
- If you cover the evil deeds your sons do, they will become thieves.
- If you (pl.) want to become virtuous men avoid evil.
- If we look with our eyes we will see objects in the world, if we look with
our minds we will see good and evil.
- If you (sg.) start singing a song, the children will start dancing.
- If we depart from the human world we will not fear to be born in the human
- If gods are born in the human world they will do meritorious deeds.
- If you search for the truth you will approach the Buddha living in the
- If you admonish the merchant he will become a virtuous man.
- If I invite the monk he will come home to preach the dhamma.
- If you are a good man you will not kill oxen roaming in the forest.
- If you do work in the field you will get wealth and corn.
- If the king wishes to govern the island righteously he will discuss with
wise men and ministers.
- If you work in the field you will see farmers ploughing.
- I see boys playing in the park with a monkey.
- If they want to see birds singing they will go to the park.
- If you listen to the dhamma you will be able to live righteously.
- If you avoid evil friends (paapamitte) you will become a good man.
- If the minister is not a good man we will not approach him.
- If there are fruits on the tree I will climb to pick them (taani).
- If I pick fruits you will eat them with friends.