Tipitaka Network :: Pāḷi Synthesis
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- Introduction to Pali (Detailed grammatical analysis)
- Introduction to Pali (Trilinear translation)
- The New Pali Course Part I
- The New Pali Course Part II
- Pali Primer
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1. The Past Participle
Past participles are mostly formed by adding -ta to the root with or without the connecting vowel
- pacati - pac + i + ta = pacita = cooked
- bhaasati - bhaas + i + ta = bhaasita = spoken
- yaacati - yaac + i + ta = yaacita = begged
- deseti - dis' + i + ta = desita = preached
- puujeti - puuj + i + ta = puujita = honoured
- gacchati - gam + ta = gata = gone
- hanati - han + ta = hata = killed
- nayati/neti - nii + ta = niita = led
The past participle is also formed from some roots by adding -na.
- chindati - chid + na = chinna = cut
- bhindati - bhid + na = bhinna = broken
- nisiidati - ni + sad + na = nisinna = seated
- tarati - ti + na = ti.n.na = crossed
2. Passive meanings
Past participles have a passive meaning when they are formed from transitive verbs, but from intransitive verbs they have an active meaning. They are declined in the three genders, as -a ending nouns in the masculine and the neuter, and
-aa ending nouns in the feminine. Pacati, chindati, nimanteti are transitive verbs. Therefore:
- pacito odano = the rice that is cooked (passive meaning);
- chinna.m pa.n.na.m = the leaf that is cut (passive meaning);
- nimantitaa ka~n~naa = the girl who is invited (passive meaning).
But gacchati, patati, ti.t.thati are intransitive verbs. Therefore:
- manusso gato (hoti) = the man has gone (active meaning);
- puppha.m patita.m (hoti) = the flower has fallen (active meaning);
- ka~n~naa .thitaa (hoti) = the girl has stood (active meaning).
The following are some past participles
- kasati - kasita, ka.t.tha
- pucchati - pucchita, pu.t.tha
- pacati - pacita, pakka
- .dasati - da.t.tha
- phusati - phu.t.tha
- pavisati - pavi.t.tha
- aamasati - aamasita, aama.t.tha
- labhati - laddha, labhita
- aarabhati - aaraddha
- bhavati - bhuuta
- bhu~njati - bhu~njita, bhutta
- vapati - vutta
- vasati - vuttha
- aasi~ncati - aasitta
- khipati - khitta
- dhovati - dhovita, dhota
- pajahati - pahiina
- vivarati - viva.ta
- pivati - piita
- cavati - cuta
- hanati - hata
- nikkhamati - nikkhanta
- jaanaati - ~naata
- su.naati - suta
- minaati - mita
- ga.nhaati - gahita
- ki.naati - kiita
- paapu.naati - patta
- karoti - kata
- ti.t.thati - .thita
- harati - ha.ta
- kujjhati - kuddha
- dadaati - dinna
- pasiidati - pasanna
- (passati) - di.t.tha, (d.rś)
- mu~ncati - mutta
4. Examples in sentence formation
- Upaasakehi vihaara.m pavi.t.tho Buddho di.t.tho hoti.
The Buddha who entered the monastery was seen by the lay devotees.
- Te Buddhena desita.m dhamma.m su.ni.msu.
They listened to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.
- Daarikaaya aaha.taani bha.n.daani ammaa pi.takesu pakkhipi.
The mother put in baskets the goods brought by the girl.
- Vaanijo patitassa rukkhassa saakhaayo chindi.
The merchant cut the branches of the fallen tree.
- Maya.m udakena aasittehi pupphehi Buddha.m puujema.
We may worship the Buddha with flowers sprinkled with water.
- Kassakena kasite khette suukaro sayati.
A pig sleeps in the field ploughed by the farmer.
Translate into English
- Ammaaya ma~njuusaaya.m pakkhitta.m suva.n.na.m daarikaa na ga.nhi.
- Dhotaani vatthaani gahetvaa bhariyaa udakamhaa uttari.
- Kassakehi uyyaane ropitesu rukkhesu phalaani bhavi.msu.
- Buddhaa devehi ca narehi ca puujitaa honti.
- Udakena puurita.m patta.m gahetvaa vanitaa geha.m aagataa hoti.
- Adhammena (unrighteously) diipa.m paalentena bhuupaalena pii.litaa manussaa kuddhaa
- Pakka.m (ripe) phala.m tu.n.dena gahetvaa u.d.denta.m suva.m aha.m
- Udento suriyo braahma.nena namassito hoti.
- Ammaaya jaalita.m diipa.m aadaya putto vihaara.m pavi.t.tho hoti.
- Vanitaaya dussena chaadite aasane sama.no nisiiditvaa sannipatitaaya parisaaya dhamma.m
- Kassakena khetta.m aaniitaa go.naa ti.na.m khaadantaa aahi.n.di.msu.
- Vaa.nijaa ma~njuusaasu .thapitaani dussaani na vikki.ni.msu.
- Sace tva.m sacca.m jaaneyyaasi maa putta.m akkosa.
- Naavaaya nikkhantaa naraa samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m paapu.nitvaa bhariyaahi saddhi.m kathentaa
- Magge .thite vaa.nijassa saka.te aha.m ka~n~naaya aaniitaani bha.n.daani .thapesi.m.
- Dhammena laddhena dhanena putte posetvaa jiivantaa manussaa devataahi rakkhitaa
- Saavakehi ca upaasakehi ca parivaarito Buddho vihaarassa chaayaaya nisinno
- Ammaaya paapehi nivaaritaa puttaa sappurisaa hutvaa dhamma.m su.nanti.
- Kassake pii.lentaa coraa pa.n.ditena anusaasitaa sappurisaa bhavitu.m vaayamantaa upaasakehi saddhi.m uyyaane rukkhe
- Vanitaa puttaaya pa.tiyaaditamhaa bhattamhaa khudaaya pii.litassa yaacakassa thoka.m (little) datvaa paaniiya.m ca dadi/adaasi.
- Sabhaaya.m nisiiditvaa daarikaaya gaayita.m giita.m sutvaa ka~n~naayo
- Amaccena nimantitaa purisaa saalaaya.m nisiiditu.m asakkontaa (unable) uyyaane
- Kassakehi khettesu vuttehi biijehi thoka.m (little) saku.naa khaadi.msu.
- Kumaarehi rukkhamuule niliiyitvaa sayanto sappo di.t.tho hoti.
- Vaa.nijena diipamhaa aaha.taani vatthaani ki.nitu.m vanitaayo icchanti.
- Sace bhuupaalo dhammena manusse rakkheyya te kammaani katvaa daarake posentaa sukha.m
- Puttena yaacitaa ammaa mittaana.m odana.m pa.tiyaadesi.
- Amaccena pu.t.tha.m pa~nha.m adhigantu.m asakkonto coraana.m duuto cintetu.m
- Corehi guhaaya.m niliiyitaani bha.n.daani passitvaa vaanaraa taani (them) aadaaya rukkhe
- Aha.m pariyesita.m dhamma.m adhigantvaa modaami.
Translate into Paali
- The man who came to the assembly could not speak with the ministers.
- The child ran to the shop taking the money given by the mother.
- The king is seated in the chariot drawn by horses.
- Having discussed with the wise man the farmers sent a messenger to the king.
- The children went out of the open door.
- The women who got down to the water washed clothes and bathed.
- Buddhas and their disciples are worshipped by gods and men.
- The merchant sold the clothes sewn by women.
- I did not take the flowers and fruits brought by the girl from the forest.
- Being chased by the dog, the girls quickly (siigha.m) ran home.
- The teacher having seen the evil deed done by the girl advised her.
- We did not light the lamps prepared by the women.
- You do not drag the branches cut by the farmer from the mountain.
- Without getting the pay for the work done, the woman is angry.
- Do not ask for fruits from the boy sitting on the branch.
- The woman who is scolded by the brahmin cries, seated at the door.
- The girl being called by the mother ran home to eat rice.
- The men who tried to cut the creepers started pulling the branches.
- The farmer who makes a living righteously, ploughing his fields experiences happiness with his wife and children.
- Deities who have departed from the world of gods and are born in the human world rejoice listening to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.
- The thieves who were instructed by the monk became good men.
- There were no fruits on the trees planted by the farmer.
- Bitten by the dog the girl ran home and cried.
- The minister is not known to the doctor.
- Seated under the tree the girls played with sand.
- Sons, do not drink liquor.
- Mothers prevent children from evil.
- I gave water to the dog oppressed with thirst.
- Seeing the hunter coming we hid among the trees.
- We prepared alms with faith and gave to the monks.